Sunday, December 29, 2019
Anxiety Disorder Ã¢â¬Å"Anxiety refers to the brain response to danger, stimuli that an organism will actively attempt to avoidÃ¢â¬ (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009, p. 1). Both children and adolescence are at risk of anxiety disorders; it is known that it is the most frequent disorder of these age groups. The classification can be found in a DSM or ICD (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009). In children, the separation from normal anxiety to pathological anxiety is difficult to assess. Some examples of normal anxiety are being physically and emotionally separated from parents, being scared of the dark, and having fear of storms. This normal anxiety in children is less visible in adolescence. Some anxiety can come about from the psychosocial and developmental stages of life. These differences are attentively studied when distinguishing anxiety in children and adolescence (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009). When assessing anxiety, age range is noted in the diagnostics. The age at which the prevalence of onset occurs can help in determining the type of anxiety. Separation anxiety disorders usually occur before the teen years, and then there are social phobias that tend to appear in late childhood. The occurrence of panic disorders and generalized anxiety disorders occur sometime around late adolescence. Anxiety among females is typically higher than males. This sex difference rises with age (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009). Risk factors are present before being clinically diagnosed with an anxietyShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1295 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnxiety Disorder Many people experience anxiety and nervousness from time to time, typically about a near event, something with an uncertain outcome, problem at work, or making an important decision. It is a normal human emotion and a normal part of life, however, anxiety disorders are not and they are very different. Anxiety disorders are psychiatric disorders which are very serious mental illness. People with anxiety disorders experience overwhelming and constant worry and fear. It often donÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreAnxiety Disorder : Symptoms And Symptoms1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnxiety is a feeling we can all relate too, some worse than others. Believe it or not, anxiety can be a normal feeling. The emotion you get before an exam, new job interview, or going on the first date, that is anxiety. There are differences in normal anxiety and pathological (abnormal) anxiety. Normal anxiety should last for a short amount of time and cause some discomfort. Now if the anxiety starts to become prolonged and caus es the person to become incapacitate, that is when it becomes pathologicalRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWorried? Nervous? The distinction between anxiety disorders and Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ anxiety is not always certain. Everybody gets anxious or worried from time to time, when speaking in public or in front of the class to give a speech or from financial problems. Sometimes anxiety can be so overbearing that it can start to control your life. Here are twelve signs you might have an anxiety disorder: Excessive worry, sleeping problems, irrational fears, muscle tension, chronic indigestion, stage fright, self-consciousnessRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociety anxiety plays a huge role in our daily lives. Imagine being in front of a crowd of people feeling nervous, anxious, and even avoiding eye contact? Many people experience these symptoms of anxiety. There are many different types of anxi ety disorders. Catching early signs of complications can lead to better treatment and acknowledgment. Gaining knowledge about anxiety and some of the different types of Anxiety Disorders, like Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder can beRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of An Anxiety Disorder Essay1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageslikely experienced anxiety. You know, that feeling you get in a nerve-wracking situation; such as speaking in front of an audience or having a stressful job. This is a normal feeling for many but when you are at the constant state of anxiety or have the feeling recur or prolong for an excessive amount of time, this is when a problem is present. An excessive feeling of worry and panic is a good sign of an anxiety disorder. An anxiety disorder can be so crippling that physical symptoms may occur. ThereRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorder1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfeelings and the feelings donÃ¢â¬â¢t pass, then itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to talk to a doctor about possibly having a type of anxiety disorder. There are seven types of anxiety disorder and they include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety, separation anxiety, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attacks, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Foa, Edna Andrews, Linda Wasmer, 2006). Generalized anxiety disorder occurs when a person has an excessive or obsessive feeling of being worried and the feeling just wonÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders Essay1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages10 Sept 2016 Did you know that anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S.? Affecting more than 40 million adults nationwide. Here is my next question. What exactly is a anxiety disorder? Anxiety is a mental illness that creates constant fear and worry which can be overwhelming or debilitating. There is a difference between normal, everyday anxiety and an actual anxiety disorder. Normal anxiety is caused by stress, usually this kind of anxiety can be helpful by motivating youRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnxiety Disorders With having so many natural explanations for the potential development of a mood disorder, do anxiety disorders also have natural components? The study conducted by Balik, et al. (2014) didnÃ¢â¬â¢t only contain findings of PMS and mood disorders; they also found evidence relating PMS to anxiety disorders. They reported that Ã¢â¬Å"more than half of women with PMS have a history of anxietyÃ¢â¬ (p 373). Does this mean that PMS is indicative of an anxiety disorder or is it the other way aroundRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders2055 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAnxiety is something that everyone has experienced at least once in their lifetime. For example, people feel anxious when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re waiting for something, or when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re worried for someone, but there is a big difference between having Ã¢â¬Å"anxietyÃ¢â¬ and suffering from an anxiety disorder. Nowadays people tend to consider anxiety a normal condition that everyone is eventually going to experience during their life. However, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to understand that anxiety is a serious mental disorder and needsRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorder1989 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswhen talking about Panic Disorder, is that it is one of six major types of anxiety. This is important to understand because people often find themselves confusing the six because many of them are very similar and have overlapping symptoms. General anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder are the six main types of anxiety that will be discussed in this paper, but panic disorder will be the main focus.
Saturday, December 21, 2019
A Case Report on the Financial Statements of Reed Elsevier and Thomson Corporation Executive Summary With the objective to understand the business performance of the two entities, we reviewed the 2007 financial statements of both company and tried to obtain some insight on the profitability and solvency of each entity. The two companies we study are: Reed Elsevier and Thomson, in the filed of information and publishing. Reed Elsevier is listed in below stock exchanges: REN (Euronext Amsterdam), REL (London), RUK and ENL (NYSE). Thomson was shown (before acquiring Reuters) as TOC (NYSE) and TOC (TSX). As the two multinational companies we are studying covering diversified businesses, here in the article we are onlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Net Income from Discontinued OperationsÃ¢â¬ ¨ The amount shown on the income statement under discontinued operations is the profit made during the period from the businesses that will not be a part of the company in the future. The net profit for the year of Reed Elsevier is higher almost by 50% due to the profit made from discontinued operations. The net profit of the Thompson Corporation has also grown by almost 4 times, which is also due mostly to the earnings from discontinued operations. Net Profit Margin Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s see how much profit a company makes for every $ 1 it generates in revenue. Profit margins vary by industry, but all else being equal, the higher a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profit margin compared to its competitors, the better. Reed Elsevier: 1,713 / 6,693= 0.26 Thompson: 1,096 / 7,296 = 0.15 Return on Equity (ROE) One of the most important profitability metrics is return on equity. Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s what the shareholders Ã¢â¬Å"ownÃ¢â¬ . A business that has a high return on equity is more likely to be one that is capable of generating cash internally. For the most part, the higher a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s return on equity compared to its industry, the better. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s calculate ROE for Thomson: the earnings for 2007 were 4,004, andShow MoreRelatedScope of the Study1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesproviding an insight into the financial position by comparing the Balance Sheet of Auto Syndicate Private Ltd. This study confined to five years data from annual reports 2006-2010, financial statements and other records of the Auto Syndicate Private Ltd. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The study is undertaken with the following objectives * To study the liquidity position of the company. * To analyze the financial performance of the company. * To predict the general financial position and profitabilityRead MoreComparative analysis of two international companies1130 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Comparative Analysis of Two International Companies Trident University International Accounting for Decision Making - ACC501 April 22, 2013 Comparative Analysis of Two International Companies Caribou Coffee Company, Inc. is a leading coffee company in the United States that boasts the second largest premium coffee operation in the U.S. (Caribou, n.d.). The Frazer Group is an international food services company, based in Finland, that seeks to grow with an optimistic viewRead MoreThe Performance Of A Firm903 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdate financial information. This information is contained in three financial statements: the income statement, the balance sheet and the statement of cash funds (Melicher Norton, 2014). Each of these statements indicates a certain aspect of the financial status of the firm and reveal the critical financial elements of the business; revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities, and equity (Melicher Norton, 2014). When combined, these financial statements should provide the overall financial statusRead MoreFinancial Statement Analysis-Questions (1)1097 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages------------------------------------------------- BBA 4201: Financial Statement Analysis amp; Control 1. Describe some of the analytical uses to which financial statement analysis can be put. 2. What are the sources of financial information? 3. Who are the users of financial statements? 4. What are the objectives of financial statements? 5. What are the limitations of financial statement analysis? 6. Discuss the need for comparative analysis. 7. Identify the tools of financial statement analysis. 8. ExplainRead MoreFinancial Statement Analysis-Questions (1)1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages------------------------------------------------- BBA 4201: Financial Statement Analysis amp; Control 1. Describe some of the analytical uses to which financial statement analysis can be put. 2. What are the sources of financial information? 3. Who are the users of financial statements? 4. What are the objectives of financial statements? 5. What are the limitations of financial statement analysis? 6. Discuss the need for comparative analysis. 7. Identify the tools of financial statement analysis. 8. Explain andRead MoreFinancial Performance Review and Objective1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A STUDY ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF MATHRUBHUMI PRINTIONG amp; PUBLISHING COMPANY LIMITED, CALICUT COMPANY PROFILE MathrubhumiÃ is one of the front-runners among the Malayalam newspapers. The first copy of MathrubhumiÃ was published on 18th of March 1923K. P. Kesava Menon, the prominent freedom fighter, as Editor and K. Madhavan Nair as Managing Director of it.In the beginning, the paper was published a week and had just one edition from Kozhikode (Calicut).Now with fourteen editions, includingRead MoreFinancial Performance Review and Objective1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A STUDY ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF MATHRUBHUMI PRINTIONG amp; PUBLISHING COMPANY LIMITED, CALICUT COMPANY PROFILE MathrubhumiÃ is one of the front-runners among the Malayalam newspapers. The first copy of MathrubhumiÃ was published on 18th of March 1923K. P. Kesava Menon, the prominent freedom fighter, as Editor and K. Madhavan Nair as Managing Director of it.In the beginning, the paper was published a week and had just one edition from Kozhikode (Calicut).Now with fourteen editions, includingRead MoreSummary of Research for Accounting Changes and Error Analysis1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAccounting Changes and Error Analysis Companies have always faced issues of how to reflect changes in accounting methods and error corrections in financial statements. A change in accounting principle results when an entity adopts a generally accepted accounting principle different from the one it used previously (Hall 2007). A presumption exists that an accounting principle once adopted shall not be changed in accounting for events and transactions of a similar type (Financial Accounting Standards Board)Read MoreFinancial Analysis : The General Electric Company1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Financial analysis gives the clear outlook of the performance parameters of an organization. It helps in evaluating and comparing the present as well past performance. This analysis is an important tool for the management, investors as well as the outsiders who deal with organization. This analysis presents the way of functioning and the direction in which an organization is moving. The analysis is done with the help of common size analysis, comparative analysis and Ratio Analysis. The analysisRead Morewe have nothing to do there1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto separate the irregular items in the income statement? How are extraordinary items different from some other irregular items that you occasionally see on a corporate income statement (e.g., items such as restructuring costs, currency gain on foreign exchange transactions, etc.)? According to accounting standard it is necessary to present irregular items in the income statement separately. Otherwise they can make confusion to user of income statement. Extraordinary items are caused by outsiders
Friday, December 13, 2019
Wavelength Conversion by Degenerate Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide Abstract Ã¢â¬â Four-wave mixing (FWM) is one of the interesting nonlinearities in optical systems. It is mainly used for wavelength conversion. To investigate the factors that affect the wavelength conversion efficiency, the evolution of Four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon waveguide is modeled using matlab. We will write a custom essay sample on Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide or any similar topic only for you Order Now The method of modeling is described. The effects of input pump power and waveguide length on the conversion efficiency are investigated. Results show that when propagating along a 0. 048m silicon waveguide, both the input pump power and stroke power decreases, while anti-stroke power increases first and then decreases along the waveguide. It is also shown that for a 0. 048 silicon waveguide, output anti-stroke power is the maximum when the input pump power is 3W. Also, when the input pump power is kept constant, there is a most effective waveguide length for wavelength conversion. Keywords -FWM; model; conversion efficiency; input pump power; waveguide length 1 Introduction Four-wave mixing (FWM) is an inter modulation phenomenon in optical systems, whereby interaction between three waves (two pump waves and a signal wave) produce a fourth wave (idler wave) . This phenomenon can be used for all optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) and entangled photon generation [2, 3]. As extremely small core of si wires produce the nonlinear optical effect even under low optical power, Silicon is used as waveguide in our project for practical wavelength conversion by FWM process with longer waveguide lengths and smaller propagation loss. Factors that affect optical wavelength conversion are being studied to enhance the conversion efficiency. It has therefore become important to study FWM in silicon waveguide theoretically to increase the conversion efficiency for further experiment. In our project, FWM matlab to study the factors that affect the conversion efficiency. This paper discusses the factors that affect FWMÃ¢â¬â¢s conversion efficiency in silicon waveguide. Theoretical treatment is presented in section 2, where FWM in silicon waveguide is described. The method to model FWM in silicon waveguide using matlab is described in section 3. Results are shown in section 4. Results show that both the input pump power and the waveguide length play an important part in the FWMÃ¢â¬â¢s conversion efficiency. 2 THEORY The FWM process involves the interaction of four waves (two Pump waves, one signal and one idler wave) as they propagates along a medium. In our project, silicon waveguide is used as the medium. The schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide is shown in figure 1. Here, E represents the electric field of the respective waves and normalized such that power P=|E|^2. Subscripts Ã¢â¬ËpÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ represent pump, signal and idler respectively. The superscript Ã¢â¬ËfÃ¢â¬â¢ represents forward propagating waves. [pic] Figure 1 Schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide . 3 METHODOLOGY The evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide can be modeled by the following differential equations . [pic][pic][pic][pic] where Aeff is the waveguide effective core area, ? is the wavelength, ? is the linear propagation loss and ? is the TPA coefficient, ? is the FCA cross section and ? eff is the effective carrier lifetime. h and c follow their usual physical meaning of PlankÃ¢â¬â¢s constant and free-space speed of light respectively. k denotes the linear phase mismatch and can be expressed as[pic]. ? is the nonlinear parameter assumed to be the same for three wavelengths and defined as [pic] where n2 is the nonlinear refractive index. To simulate the evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide, the above four differential equation are solved simultaneously using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF) method . | Parameters |Input-Output simulation values | |? |100/4. 34 m-1 | |Aeff |0. 17? 10^(-12) m2 | |? 0. 7? 10^(-11) m/W | |? p |1310? 10^(-9) m | |? eff |1? 10^(-9) s | |c |2. 998? 10^(8) | |h |6. 626? 10^(-34) Js | |? k |0 m/s | |? p |1. 0297? 10-21m2 | |? |2. 43 ? 10^(-11) m/W | 4 RESULTs and discussion . 1 Modelling of FWM in silicon waveguide Given Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pump power, stroke power and anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the position in the waveguide. [pic][pic][pic]The figures above show that when propagating in the waveguide, both the pump power and stroke power decrease while the anti-stoke power increases. This is as expected, as the interaction of the pump wave and stroke wave produce the anti-stroke wave. The increase of the anti-stroke power comes from the decrease of the pump and stroke power. It can be seen that, at the end of the waveguide, the pump power is only 0. 26W and the stoke power is only 0. 026W. Both of them decrease 74% of their original power. Both the pump power and stroke power decrease fast at the beginning, and then their decrease rate becomes slower when propagating further in the waveguide. This implies that the higher the pump power and the stroke power, the higher the propagation loss. As a result, the anti-stroke power increases fast at the beginning and then its increasing rate slows down. At the length of 0. 42m, the power of the anti-stroke reaches its maximum value which is about 3. 2*10^-5W. Then the anti-stroke power starts to decrease slowly. This may be because when the pump and stroke power is small, the gain of the anti-stroke power is less than its propagation loss. 4. 2 Effects of input pump power on conversion efficiency Given Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pp changes from 0 to 10W with step 0. 2W. The graph of the output stroke power and the output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the input pump power. [pic] Figure 2. 1 Output stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that the larger the input pump power, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the larger the input pump power, the larger the propagation loss. The output stroke decreases slower when the input pump power is higher. [pic] Figure 2. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that when the input pump power is less than3W, the higher the input pump power, the higher the output anti-stroke power. This is as expected, as more input power can be converted to anti-stroke power when the input pump power is larger. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the input pump power. As the higher the input pump power, the higher the propagation loss. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the propagation loss dominates. 4. 3 Effects of waveguide length on conversion efficiency To investigate the relationship between the waveguide length and the conversion efficiency, input power are keep constant, Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W, L changes from 0. 001m to 0. 1m with step 0. 001m. Output stroke power and output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to different waveguide length. pic] Figure 3. 1 Output stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that the longer the waveguide length, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the longer the waveguide length, the larger the propagation loss. The decreasing rate of the output stroke power decreases with the waveguide length. [pic] Figure 3. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that when the waveguide length is less than 0. 048m, the output anti-stroke power increases with the waveguide length. This implies that the gain is larger than the propagation loss in the waveguide. When the waveguide length is larger than 0. 48m, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the waveguide length. At waveguide length larger than 0. 048m, the propagation loss is larger than the gain of the anti-stroke power. The output anti-stroke power has a maximum value of 4. 5*10^3 when the waveguide is 0. 048m. Thus, the most effective waveguide length is 0. 048m. 5 Conclusion The conclusion serves the important function of drawing together the various sections of the written report. The conclusion is a summary, and the developments of the previous sections or chapters should be succinctly restated, important findings discussed and conclusions drawn from the whole study. In addition, you may list questions that have appeared in the course of the study that require additional research, beyond the limits of the project being reported. Where appropriate, recommendations for future work may be included. The conclusion should, however, leave the reader with an impression of completeness and of gain. Acknowledgment The author would like to express her deepest gratitude to A/P Luan Feng and PhD student Huang Ying for their guidance, assistance and advices. The author also wishes to acknowledge the funding support for this project from Nanyang Technological University under the Undergraduate Research Experience on Campus (URECA) programme. References The template will number citations consecutively within brackets . The sentence punctuation follows the bracket . Refer simply to the reference number, as in Ã¢â¬âdo not use Ã¢â¬Å"Ref. Ã¢â¬ or reference Ã¢â¬ except at the beginning of a sentence: Ã¢â¬Å"Reference  was the first Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Number footnotes separately in superscripts. Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it was cited. Do not put footnotes in the reference list. Use letters for table footnotes. Unless there are six authors or more give all authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ names; do not use Ã¢â¬Å"et al. Ã¢â¬ Papers that have not been published, even if they have been submitted for publication, should be cited as Ã¢â¬Å"unpublishedÃ¢â¬ . Papers that have been accepted for publication should be cited as Ã¢â¬Å"in pressÃ¢â¬ . Capitalize only the first word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in translation journals, please give the English citation first, followed by the original foreign-language citation . 1] G. Eason, B. Noble, and I. N. Sneddon, Ã¢â¬Å"On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions,Ã¢â¬ Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955. (references) 2] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed. , vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp. 68-73. 3] I. S. Jacobs and C. P. Bean, Ã¢â¬Å"Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy,Ã¢â¬ in Magnetism, vol. III, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271-350. 4] K. Elissa, Ã¢â¬Å"Title of paper if known,Ã¢â¬ unpublished. 5] R. Nicole, Title of paper with only first word capitalized,Ã¢â¬ J. Name Stand. Abbrev. , in press. 6] Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, Ã¢â¬Å"Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interface,Ã¢â¬ IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740-741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p. 301, 1982]. 7] M. Young, The Technical WriterÃ¢â¬â¢s Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989. How to cite Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Marketing and Management for Organisational Discipline. Answer: Introduction Marketing management is defined as the organizational discipline that mainly focuses on the methodologies and techniques inside the organizations, practical application of marketing orientation and on the management of the marketing activities and resources of an organization (Kotler et al. 2015). The globalization has lead several organizations to market their products and services beyond the borders of their native country and has made the international marketing a common factor in the marketing strategies of every firm (De Mooij 2013). It has been found that the marketing managers are more responsible for influencing the timing, level and composition of the demand of customers. Nowadays, it has been found that the labeling and packing plays a vital role in the marketing industry as proper labeling and attractive packaging helps an organization to earn more profit by attracting more customers to the firm (Homburg, Kuester and Krohmer 2013). On the other hand, proper packaging helps to protect the products or goods from any breakage or damage, thus, both packaging and labeling plays an important role in running the organization successfully (Perreault Jr, Cannon and McCarthy 2013). However, it has been found that within the country Australia, various issues regarding both labeling and packaging have been identified that affects the marketing sector adversely. Labeling and Packaging Labeling is defined as the display of information regarding the particular product on its packaging, container or the product itself (Jobber and Ellis-Chadwick 2012). For various types of customers and industrial products, the extent and the type of information that should be represented by a label is generally governed by the shipping and relevant safety laws. On the other hand, packaging is defined as the technology that encloses or protects the goods or products from the external environment, any type of breakages or damages for distributing, selling, using and storing them properly. In addition to this, packaging is also referred as the process of evaluating, producing and designing the packages (Wilson et al. 2012). The main functions of packaging are to contain, to protect, to preserve, to inform, to sell and also to transport. In addition to these, packaging promotes the products, provides additional value and differentiation, helps in attracting and also facilitates in purchasing decision. However, the labeling and packaging have various functions and plays important role in an organization in order to attract more customers and to earn more profit. It has been found that recently various issues regarding the process of labeling and packaging have been identified in Australia. Issues of Labeling and Country of Origin There are several issues regarding the packaging and labeling of food products and also the country of origin. Based on the four articles found in The Sydney Morning Herald, Nick Xenophon, Independent Senator for South Australia, The Sydney Morning Herald and Choice respectively, the problems about the food packaging have been analyzed. On the contrary, the problems regarding food labeling and packaging and the country of origin can be better understood. The first article is regarding the outbreak of Hepatitis A in Australia due to the import of frozen berries. The Abbott government acted as the country of origin i.e. the frozen berries were imported from China (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). The name of this nation is easily found for proper labeling. It has been found that whenever the Australian people suffer due to imported foods, they wanted to know about the country which have imported the food and also about the food. Therefore, Mr. Abbott started to reject labeling of foods and a complete overhaul of testing and stated that it is the food businesses responsibility not to provide poison in the food and also not to poison the customers minds. Thus, balancing act plays the vital role as it does not hurt the business along with the changes that take place in the present society. The nations government planned to put extra requirements in food business which might act as a punishment for the firm by making the life complicated a nd this might give rise to unreasonable prices. People of the nation wanted tougher laws about the country of origin labeling, as it has been founded that 18 people were attacked by hepatitis A due to the consumption of frozen Patties berries (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). The reason behind this is that the berries were assumed to be contaminated and were imported from China. The recent labels make the consumers confused and also made uncertain regarding the country of origin. Therefore, the display of labels has been changed and this helps the consumers to differentiate easily between the imported and local ingredients (Foodstandards.gov.au. 2016). However, the display of label that was made in Australia was not appreciated by the consumers as it indicates both the food products which have been grown in and outside Australia (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). Therefore, a compulsory and simple diagrammatic thing was implemented along with it, the percentage of imported ingredient s and Australian grown ingredients should be separately mentioned on the labeling of packaging. Therefore, the Greens have been called for tougher laws about the labeling to the Parliament. The second article is regarding the scandal of food labeling in Australia that has been quoted from Nick Xenophon, Independent Senator for South Australia. Generally the laws of Australia regarding labeling tend to mislead as these do not allow the consumers to know about the origins of food. Presently, the rule for describing a good is Made in Australia that means 51% of total value of food products have been transformed in Australia (Nickxenophon.com.au. 2016). It took place with the palm oil as its production causes deforestation in south-eastern part of Asia and causes death of Orangutans. The recent labeling law seemed to be a bad indicator for both consumers and farmers in Australia, as people of Australia prefer more to buy local food than imported ones or the food substances that are mixture of local and imported materials. It has been found that 89% of Australian people believe that local food products are healthier and fresher than imported ones (Nickxenophon.com.au. 2016). Thus, it can be said that the Australian people mainly prefer to purchase and support local food items but the politicians gave in to industry supplicants. The third article states that almost half of the snack food products that are labeled as natural are considered as unhealthy. It has been found that over 60% of Australians prefer to purchase drinks or food that are described as natural though the survey has reported that most of the food products labeled natural are unhealthy (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). 331 supermarket foods that are marked as natural were analyzed by the public health group LiveLighter and founded that 47% of the food products do not fall into one of five core food category (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). As per the survey, it has been found that the products like Lollies, chips, muesli bars, biscuits, snack bars, crackers and tomato ketchup were among those products that display the words natures, nature or natural on their packaging but are unhealthy in actual (Foodlabellingreview.gov.au. 2016). The reason behind this is that the words like natures, nature or natural might mean less-processed, fewer ingre dients in some of the products or made locally. However, it has been found that most of these products contain high in saturated fat, salt and sugar, which are awful for health. The fourth article is regarding fake oregano in the spice rack. It has been found that Choice has identified food fraud within the supply chain of oregano, where only 5 out of total 12 samples were 100% oregano and remaining was fraud, as they were consisted of sumac leaves and olive leaves (Choice 2016). It has also been reported that in the last year in the U.K., 25% of the samples of oregano were adulterated (Choice 2016). In Australia, sample examination of total 12 different brands of oregano were done by collecting these samples from supermarkets, delis and grocers in Perth, Sydney and Melbourne (Choice 2016). This unique screening test resulted that adulterated oregano are produced by the brands like Master of Spices, Spice Co, Stonemill, Hoyts, Spencers, Menora and G Fresh. It has been found that ingredients other than oregano made up about 50% to 90% of the adulterated samples (Choice 2016). The reason behind this adulteration is still not known but it can be assumed that l ike the case of saffron fraud, the brands adulterated the oregano to make it a lower quality product and to earn a huge financial gain from this. In addition to this, in order to meet the demand of the customers, adulteration might have taken place or due to crop failure. It has been found that in 2015, people of Australia have spent about $115 million on spices and herbs as per the Retail World Annual Report and Oregano is considered as the staple food in the spice rack for most of the Australians (Choice 2016). Thus, the incidents of adulteration in the food industry should be abolished that take place by holding the hands of labeling and packaging. Conclusion Therefore, it can be concluded that the country Australia should modify its laws, rules and regulations regarding labeling and packaging in order to put stop to adulteration. In addition to this, the highlighted words like natural, natures or nature on the packaging of the food products also cause harm to human health. The laws of Australia regarding labeling should be changed in order to protect the consumers from harmful diseases like Hepatitis A that spread among the Australians due to the import of frozen berries from China. Thus, food businesses should follow all the new laws of labeling in order to maintain a healthy environment within the country. References Choice. 2016.Oregano fraud in Australia - CHOICE. [online] Available at: https://www.choice.com.au/oregano [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. De Mooij, M., 2013.Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Sage Publications. 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