Sunday, December 29, 2019

Symptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders - 1193 Words

Anxiety Disorder â€Å"Anxiety refers to the brain response to danger, stimuli that an organism will actively attempt to avoid† (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009, p. 1). Both children and adolescence are at risk of anxiety disorders; it is known that it is the most frequent disorder of these age groups. The classification can be found in a DSM or ICD (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009). In children, the separation from normal anxiety to pathological anxiety is difficult to assess. Some examples of normal anxiety are being physically and emotionally separated from parents, being scared of the dark, and having fear of storms. This normal anxiety in children is less visible in adolescence. Some anxiety can come about from the psychosocial and developmental stages of life. These differences are attentively studied when distinguishing anxiety in children and adolescence (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009). When assessing anxiety, age range is noted in the diagnostics. The age at which the prevalence of onset occurs can help in determining the type of anxiety. Separation anxiety disorders usually occur before the teen years, and then there are social phobias that tend to appear in late childhood. The occurrence of panic disorders and generalized anxiety disorders occur sometime around late adolescence. Anxiety among females is typically higher than males. This sex difference rises with age (Beesdo, Knappe, Pine, 2009). Risk factors are present before being clinically diagnosed with an anxietyShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1295 Words   |  6 PagesAnxiety Disorder Many people experience anxiety and nervousness from time to time, typically about a near event, something with an uncertain outcome, problem at work, or making an important decision. It is a normal human emotion and a normal part of life, however, anxiety disorders are not and they are very different. Anxiety disorders are psychiatric disorders which are very serious mental illness. People with anxiety disorders experience overwhelming and constant worry and fear. It often don’tRead MoreAnxiety Disorder : Symptoms And Symptoms1063 Words   |  5 PagesAnxiety is a feeling we can all relate too, some worse than others. Believe it or not, anxiety can be a normal feeling. The emotion you get before an exam, new job interview, or going on the first date, that is anxiety. There are differences in normal anxiety and pathological (abnormal) anxiety. Normal anxiety should last for a short amount of time and cause some discomfort. Now if the anxiety starts to become prolonged and caus es the person to become incapacitate, that is when it becomes pathologicalRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1586 Words   |  7 PagesWorried? Nervous? The distinction between anxiety disorders and â€Å"normal† anxiety is not always certain. Everybody gets anxious or worried from time to time, when speaking in public or in front of the class to give a speech or from financial problems. Sometimes anxiety can be so overbearing that it can start to control your life. Here are twelve signs you might have an anxiety disorder: Excessive worry, sleeping problems, irrational fears, muscle tension, chronic indigestion, stage fright, self-consciousnessRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1262 Words   |  6 Pagessociety anxiety plays a huge role in our daily lives. Imagine being in front of a crowd of people feeling nervous, anxious, and even avoiding eye contact? Many people experience these symptoms of anxiety. There are many different types of anxi ety disorders. Catching early signs of complications can lead to better treatment and acknowledgment. Gaining knowledge about anxiety and some of the different types of Anxiety Disorders, like Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder can beRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of An Anxiety Disorder Essay1593 Words   |  7 Pageslikely experienced anxiety. You know, that feeling you get in a nerve-wracking situation; such as speaking in front of an audience or having a stressful job. This is a normal feeling for many but when you are at the constant state of anxiety or have the feeling recur or prolong for an excessive amount of time, this is when a problem is present. An excessive feeling of worry and panic is a good sign of an anxiety disorder. An anxiety disorder can be so crippling that physical symptoms may occur. ThereRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorder1264 Words   |  6 Pagesfeelings and the feelings don’t pass, then it’s time to talk to a doctor about possibly having a type of anxiety disorder. There are seven types of anxiety disorder and they include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety, separation anxiety, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attacks, and post-traumatic stress disorder (Foa, Edna Andrews, Linda Wasmer, 2006). Generalized anxiety disorder occurs when a person has an excessive or obsessive feeling of being worried and the feeling just won’tRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders Essay1352 Words   |  6 Pages10 Sept 2016 Did you know that anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S.? Affecting more than 40 million adults nationwide. Here is my next question. What exactly is a anxiety disorder? Anxiety is a mental illness that creates constant fear and worry which can be overwhelming or debilitating. There is a difference between normal, everyday anxiety and an actual anxiety disorder. Normal anxiety is caused by stress, usually this kind of anxiety can be helpful by motivating youRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders1665 Words   |  7 PagesAnxiety Disorders With having so many natural explanations for the potential development of a mood disorder, do anxiety disorders also have natural components? The study conducted by Balik, et al. (2014) didn’t only contain findings of PMS and mood disorders; they also found evidence relating PMS to anxiety disorders. They reported that â€Å"more than half of women with PMS have a history of anxiety† (p 373). Does this mean that PMS is indicative of an anxiety disorder or is it the other way aroundRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders2055 Words   |  9 PagesAnxiety is something that everyone has experienced at least once in their lifetime. For example, people feel anxious when they’re waiting for something, or when they’re worried for someone, but there is a big difference between having â€Å"anxiety† and suffering from an anxiety disorder. Nowadays people tend to consider anxiety a normal condition that everyone is eventually going to experience during their life. However, it’s important to understand that anxiety is a serious mental disorder and needsRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorder1989 Words   |  8 Pageswhen talking about Panic Disorder, is that it is one of six major types of anxiety. This is important to understand because people often find themselves confusing the six because many of them are very similar and have overlapping symptoms. General anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder are the six main types of anxiety that will be discussed in this paper, but panic disorder will be the main focus.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Comparative Analysis of Financial Statements Between Two...

A Case Report on the Financial Statements of Reed Elsevier and Thomson Corporation Executive Summary With the objective to understand the business performance of the two entities, we reviewed the 2007 financial statements of both company and tried to obtain some insight on the profitability and solvency of each entity. The two companies we study are: Reed Elsevier and Thomson, in the filed of information and publishing. Reed Elsevier is listed in below stock exchanges: REN (Euronext Amsterdam), REL (London), RUK and ENL (NYSE). Thomson was shown (before acquiring Reuters) as TOC (NYSE) and TOC (TSX). As the two multinational companies we are studying covering diversified businesses, here in the article we are only†¦show more content†¦Net Income from Discontinued Operations†¨ The amount shown on the income statement under discontinued operations is the profit made during the period from the businesses that will not be a part of the company in the future. The net profit for the year of Reed Elsevier is higher almost by 50% due to the profit made from discontinued operations. The net profit of the Thompson Corporation has also grown by almost 4 times, which is also due mostly to the earnings from discontinued operations. Net Profit Margin Now let’s see how much profit a company makes for every $ 1 it generates in revenue. Profit margins vary by industry, but all else being equal, the higher a company’s profit margin compared to its competitors, the better. Reed Elsevier: 1,713 / 6,693= 0.26 Thompson: 1,096 / 7,296 = 0.15 Return on Equity (ROE) One of the most important profitability metrics is return on equity. Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity. It’s what the shareholders â€Å"own†. A business that has a high return on equity is more likely to be one that is capable of generating cash internally. For the most part, the higher a company’s return on equity compared to its industry, the better. Let’s calculate ROE for Thomson: the earnings for 2007 were 4,004, andShow MoreRelatedScope of the Study1611 Words   |  7 Pagesproviding an insight into the financial position by comparing the Balance Sheet of Auto Syndicate Private Ltd. This study confined to five years data from annual reports 2006-2010, financial statements and other records of the Auto Syndicate Private Ltd. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: The study is undertaken with the following objectives * To study the liquidity position of the company. * To analyze the financial performance of the company. * To predict the general financial position and profitabilityRead MoreComparative analysis of two international companies1130 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Comparative Analysis of Two International Companies Trident University International Accounting for Decision Making - ACC501 April 22, 2013 Comparative Analysis of Two International Companies Caribou Coffee Company, Inc. is a leading coffee company in the United States that boasts the second largest premium coffee operation in the U.S. (Caribou, n.d.). The Frazer Group is an international food services company, based in Finland, that seeks to grow with an optimistic viewRead MoreThe Performance Of A Firm903 Words   |  4 Pagesdate financial information. This information is contained in three financial statements: the income statement, the balance sheet and the statement of cash funds (Melicher Norton, 2014). Each of these statements indicates a certain aspect of the financial status of the firm and reveal the critical financial elements of the business; revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities, and equity (Melicher Norton, 2014). When combined, these financial statements should provide the overall financial statusRead MoreFinancial Statement Analysis-Questions (1)1097 Words   |  5 Pages------------------------------------------------- BBA 4201: Financial Statement Analysis amp; Control 1. Describe some of the analytical uses to which financial statement analysis can be put. 2. What are the sources of financial information? 3. Who are the users of financial statements? 4. What are the objectives of financial statements? 5. What are the limitations of financial statement analysis? 6. Discuss the need for comparative analysis. 7. Identify the tools of financial statement analysis. 8. ExplainRead MoreFinancial Statement Analysis-Questions (1)1087 Words   |  5 Pages------------------------------------------------- BBA 4201: Financial Statement Analysis amp; Control 1. Describe some of the analytical uses to which financial statement analysis can be put. 2. What are the sources of financial information? 3. Who are the users of financial statements? 4. What are the objectives of financial statements? 5. What are the limitations of financial statement analysis? 6. Discuss the need for comparative analysis. 7. Identify the tools of financial statement analysis. 8. Explain andRead MoreFinancial Performance Review and Objective1405 Words   |  6 Pages A STUDY ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF MATHRUBHUMI PRINTIONG amp; PUBLISHING COMPANY LIMITED, CALICUT COMPANY PROFILE Mathrubhumi  is one of the front-runners among the Malayalam newspapers. The first copy of Mathrubhumi  was published on 18th of March 1923K. P. Kesava Menon, the prominent freedom fighter, as Editor and K. Madhavan Nair as Managing Director of it.In the beginning, the paper was published a week and had just one edition from Kozhikode (Calicut).Now with fourteen editions, includingRead MoreFinancial Performance Review and Objective1419 Words   |  6 Pages A STUDY ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF MATHRUBHUMI PRINTIONG amp; PUBLISHING COMPANY LIMITED, CALICUT COMPANY PROFILE Mathrubhumi  is one of the front-runners among the Malayalam newspapers. The first copy of Mathrubhumi  was published on 18th of March 1923K. P. Kesava Menon, the prominent freedom fighter, as Editor and K. Madhavan Nair as Managing Director of it.In the beginning, the paper was published a week and had just one edition from Kozhikode (Calicut).Now with fourteen editions, includingRead MoreSummary of Research for Accounting Changes and Error Analysis1143 Words   |  5 PagesAccounting Changes and Error Analysis Companies have always faced issues of how to reflect changes in accounting methods and error corrections in financial statements. A change in accounting principle results when an entity adopts a generally accepted accounting principle different from the one it used previously (Hall 2007). A presumption exists that an accounting principle once adopted shall not be changed in accounting for events and transactions of a similar type (Financial Accounting Standards Board)Read MoreFinancial Analysis : The General Electric Company1696 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Financial analysis gives the clear outlook of the performance parameters of an organization. It helps in evaluating and comparing the present as well past performance. This analysis is an important tool for the management, investors as well as the outsiders who deal with organization. This analysis presents the way of functioning and the direction in which an organization is moving. The analysis is done with the help of common size analysis, comparative analysis and Ratio Analysis. The analysisRead Morewe have nothing to do there1480 Words   |  6 Pagesto separate the irregular items in the income statement? How are extraordinary items different from some other irregular items that you occasionally see on a corporate income statement (e.g., items such as restructuring costs, currency gain on foreign exchange transactions, etc.)? According to accounting standard it is necessary to present irregular items in the income statement separately. Otherwise they can make confusion to user of income statement. Extraordinary items are caused by outsiders

Friday, December 13, 2019

Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide Free Essays

Wavelength Conversion by Degenerate Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide Abstract – Four-wave mixing (FWM) is one of the interesting nonlinearities in optical systems. It is mainly used for wavelength conversion. To investigate the factors that affect the wavelength conversion efficiency, the evolution of Four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon waveguide is modeled using matlab. We will write a custom essay sample on Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide or any similar topic only for you Order Now The method of modeling is described. The effects of input pump power and waveguide length on the conversion efficiency are investigated. Results show that when propagating along a 0. 048m silicon waveguide, both the input pump power and stroke power decreases, while anti-stroke power increases first and then decreases along the waveguide. It is also shown that for a 0. 048 silicon waveguide, output anti-stroke power is the maximum when the input pump power is 3W. Also, when the input pump power is kept constant, there is a most effective waveguide length for wavelength conversion. Keywords -FWM; model; conversion efficiency; input pump power; waveguide length 1 Introduction Four-wave mixing (FWM) is an inter modulation phenomenon in optical systems, whereby interaction between three waves (two pump waves and a signal wave) produce a fourth wave (idler wave) [1]. This phenomenon can be used for all optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) and entangled photon generation [2, 3]. As extremely small core of si wires produce the nonlinear optical effect even under low optical power, Silicon is used as waveguide in our project for practical wavelength conversion by FWM process with longer waveguide lengths and smaller propagation loss[4]. Factors that affect optical wavelength conversion are being studied to enhance the conversion efficiency. It has therefore become important to study FWM in silicon waveguide theoretically to increase the conversion efficiency for further experiment. In our project, FWM matlab to study the factors that affect the conversion efficiency. This paper discusses the factors that affect FWM’s conversion efficiency in silicon waveguide. Theoretical treatment is presented in section 2, where FWM in silicon waveguide is described. The method to model FWM in silicon waveguide using matlab is described in section 3. Results are shown in section 4. Results show that both the input pump power and the waveguide length play an important part in the FWM’s conversion efficiency. 2 THEORY The FWM process involves the interaction of four waves (two Pump waves, one signal and one idler wave) as they propagates along a medium. In our project, silicon waveguide is used as the medium. The schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide is shown in figure 1. Here, E represents the electric field of the respective waves and normalized such that power P=|E|^2. Subscripts ‘p’, ‘s’ and ‘a’ represent pump, signal and idler respectively. The superscript ‘f’ represents forward propagating waves. [pic] Figure 1 Schematic diagram of FWM in silicon waveguide . 3 METHODOLOGY The evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide can be modeled by the following differential equations [1]. [pic][pic][pic][pic] where Aeff is the waveguide effective core area, ? is the wavelength, ? is the linear propagation loss and ? is the TPA coefficient, ? is the FCA cross section and ? eff is the effective carrier lifetime. h and c follow their usual physical meaning of Plank’s constant and free-space speed of light respectively. k denotes the linear phase mismatch and can be expressed as[pic]. ? is the nonlinear parameter assumed to be the same for three wavelengths and defined as [pic] where n2 is the nonlinear refractive index. To simulate the evolution of the three waves along the silicon waveguide, the above four differential equation are solved simultaneously using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF) method [2]. | Parameters |Input-Output simulation values | |? |100/4. 34 m-1 | |Aeff |0. 17? 10^(-12) m2 | |? 0. 7? 10^(-11) m/W | |? p |1310? 10^(-9) m | |? eff |1? 10^(-9) s | |c |2. 998? 10^(8) | |h |6. 626? 10^(-34) Js | |? k |0 m/s | |? p |1. 0297? 10-21m2 | |? |2. 43 ? 10^(-11) m/W | 4 RESULTs and discussion . 1 Modelling of FWM in silicon waveguide Given Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pump power, stroke power and anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the position in the waveguide. [pic][pic][pic]The figures above show that when propagating in the waveguide, both the pump power and stroke power decrease while the anti-stoke power increases. This is as expected, as the interaction of the pump wave and stroke wave produce the anti-stroke wave. The increase of the anti-stroke power comes from the decrease of the pump and stroke power. It can be seen that, at the end of the waveguide, the pump power is only 0. 26W and the stoke power is only 0. 026W. Both of them decrease 74% of their original power. Both the pump power and stroke power decrease fast at the beginning, and then their decrease rate becomes slower when propagating further in the waveguide. This implies that the higher the pump power and the stroke power, the higher the propagation loss. As a result, the anti-stroke power increases fast at the beginning and then its increasing rate slows down. At the length of 0. 42m, the power of the anti-stroke reaches its maximum value which is about 3. 2*10^-5W. Then the anti-stroke power starts to decrease slowly. This may be because when the pump and stroke power is small, the gain of the anti-stroke power is less than its propagation loss. 4. 2 Effects of input pump power on conversion efficiency Given Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W and L=0. 048m, Pp changes from 0 to 10W with step 0. 2W. The graph of the output stroke power and the output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to the input pump power. [pic] Figure 2. 1 Output stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that the larger the input pump power, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the larger the input pump power, the larger the propagation loss. The output stroke decreases slower when the input pump power is higher. [pic] Figure 2. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different input pump power This graph shows that when the input pump power is less than3W, the higher the input pump power, the higher the output anti-stroke power. This is as expected, as more input power can be converted to anti-stroke power when the input pump power is larger. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the input pump power. As the higher the input pump power, the higher the propagation loss. When the input pump power is larger than3W, the propagation loss dominates. 4. 3 Effects of waveguide length on conversion efficiency To investigate the relationship between the waveguide length and the conversion efficiency, input power are keep constant, Pp=1W, Ps=0. 001W, Pa=0W, L changes from 0. 001m to 0. 1m with step 0. 001m. Output stroke power and output anti-stroke power are drawn with respect to different waveguide length. pic] Figure 3. 1 Output stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that the longer the waveguide length, the smaller the output stroke power. This is as expected, as the longer the waveguide length, the larger the propagation loss. The decreasing rate of the output stroke power decreases with the waveguide length. [pic] Figure 3. 2 Output anti-stroke power with different waveguide length This graph shows that when the waveguide length is less than 0. 048m, the output anti-stroke power increases with the waveguide length. This implies that the gain is larger than the propagation loss in the waveguide. When the waveguide length is larger than 0. 48m, the output anti-stoke power decreases with the waveguide length. At waveguide length larger than 0. 048m, the propagation loss is larger than the gain of the anti-stroke power. The output anti-stroke power has a maximum value of 4. 5*10^3 when the waveguide is 0. 048m. Thus, the most effective waveguide length is 0. 048m. 5 Conclusion The conclusion serves the important function of drawing together the various sections of the written report. The conclusion is a summary, and the developments of the previous sections or chapters should be succinctly restated, important findings discussed and conclusions drawn from the whole study. In addition, you may list questions that have appeared in the course of the study that require additional research, beyond the limits of the project being reported. Where appropriate, recommendations for future work may be included. The conclusion should, however, leave the reader with an impression of completeness and of gain. Acknowledgment The author would like to express her deepest gratitude to A/P Luan Feng and PhD student Huang Ying for their guidance, assistance and advices. The author also wishes to acknowledge the funding support for this project from Nanyang Technological University under the Undergraduate Research Experience on Campus (URECA) programme. References The template will number citations consecutively within brackets [1]. The sentence punctuation follows the bracket [2]. Refer simply to the reference number, as in [3]—do not use â€Å"Ref. [3]† or reference [3]† except at the beginning of a sentence: â€Å"Reference [3] was the first †¦Ã¢â‚¬  Number footnotes separately in superscripts. Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it was cited. Do not put footnotes in the reference list. Use letters for table footnotes. Unless there are six authors or more give all authors’ names; do not use â€Å"et al. † Papers that have not been published, even if they have been submitted for publication, should be cited as â€Å"unpublished† [4]. Papers that have been accepted for publication should be cited as â€Å"in press† [5]. Capitalize only the first word in a paper title, except for proper nouns and element symbols. For papers published in translation journals, please give the English citation first, followed by the original foreign-language citation [6]. 1] G. Eason, B. Noble, and I. N. Sneddon, â€Å"On certain integrals of Lipschitz-Hankel type involving products of Bessel functions,† Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, vol. A247, pp. 529-551, April 1955. (references) 2] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed. , vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp. 68-73. 3] I. S. Jacobs and C. P. Bean, â€Å"Fine particles, thin films and exchange anisotropy,† in Magnetism, vol. III, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271-350. 4] K. Elissa, â€Å"Title of paper if known,† unpublished. 5] R. Nicole, Title of paper with only first word capitalized,† J. Name Stand. Abbrev. , in press. 6] Y. Yorozu, M. Hirano, K. Oka, and Y. Tagawa, â€Å"Electron spectroscopy studies on magneto-optical media and plastic substrate interface,† IEEE Transl. J. Magn. Japan, vol. 2, pp. 740-741, August 1987 [Digests 9th Annual Conf. Magnetics Japan, p. 301, 1982]. 7] M. Young, The Technical Writer’s Handbook. Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989. How to cite Wavelength Conversion Four Wave Mixing in Silicon Waveguide, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Marketing and Management Organisational Discipline

Question: Discuss about the Marketing and Management for Organisational Discipline. Answer: Introduction Marketing management is defined as the organizational discipline that mainly focuses on the methodologies and techniques inside the organizations, practical application of marketing orientation and on the management of the marketing activities and resources of an organization (Kotler et al. 2015). The globalization has lead several organizations to market their products and services beyond the borders of their native country and has made the international marketing a common factor in the marketing strategies of every firm (De Mooij 2013). It has been found that the marketing managers are more responsible for influencing the timing, level and composition of the demand of customers. Nowadays, it has been found that the labeling and packing plays a vital role in the marketing industry as proper labeling and attractive packaging helps an organization to earn more profit by attracting more customers to the firm (Homburg, Kuester and Krohmer 2013). On the other hand, proper packaging helps to protect the products or goods from any breakage or damage, thus, both packaging and labeling plays an important role in running the organization successfully (Perreault Jr, Cannon and McCarthy 2013). However, it has been found that within the country Australia, various issues regarding both labeling and packaging have been identified that affects the marketing sector adversely. Labeling and Packaging Labeling is defined as the display of information regarding the particular product on its packaging, container or the product itself (Jobber and Ellis-Chadwick 2012). For various types of customers and industrial products, the extent and the type of information that should be represented by a label is generally governed by the shipping and relevant safety laws. On the other hand, packaging is defined as the technology that encloses or protects the goods or products from the external environment, any type of breakages or damages for distributing, selling, using and storing them properly. In addition to this, packaging is also referred as the process of evaluating, producing and designing the packages (Wilson et al. 2012). The main functions of packaging are to contain, to protect, to preserve, to inform, to sell and also to transport. In addition to these, packaging promotes the products, provides additional value and differentiation, helps in attracting and also facilitates in purchasing decision. However, the labeling and packaging have various functions and plays important role in an organization in order to attract more customers and to earn more profit. It has been found that recently various issues regarding the process of labeling and packaging have been identified in Australia. Issues of Labeling and Country of Origin There are several issues regarding the packaging and labeling of food products and also the country of origin. Based on the four articles found in The Sydney Morning Herald, Nick Xenophon, Independent Senator for South Australia, The Sydney Morning Herald and Choice respectively, the problems about the food packaging have been analyzed. On the contrary, the problems regarding food labeling and packaging and the country of origin can be better understood. The first article is regarding the outbreak of Hepatitis A in Australia due to the import of frozen berries. The Abbott government acted as the country of origin i.e. the frozen berries were imported from China (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). The name of this nation is easily found for proper labeling. It has been found that whenever the Australian people suffer due to imported foods, they wanted to know about the country which have imported the food and also about the food. Therefore, Mr. Abbott started to reject labeling of foods and a complete overhaul of testing and stated that it is the food businesses responsibility not to provide poison in the food and also not to poison the customers minds. Thus, balancing act plays the vital role as it does not hurt the business along with the changes that take place in the present society. The nations government planned to put extra requirements in food business which might act as a punishment for the firm by making the life complicated a nd this might give rise to unreasonable prices. People of the nation wanted tougher laws about the country of origin labeling, as it has been founded that 18 people were attacked by hepatitis A due to the consumption of frozen Patties berries (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). The reason behind this is that the berries were assumed to be contaminated and were imported from China. The recent labels make the consumers confused and also made uncertain regarding the country of origin. Therefore, the display of labels has been changed and this helps the consumers to differentiate easily between the imported and local ingredients ( 2016). However, the display of label that was made in Australia was not appreciated by the consumers as it indicates both the food products which have been grown in and outside Australia (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). Therefore, a compulsory and simple diagrammatic thing was implemented along with it, the percentage of imported ingredient s and Australian grown ingredients should be separately mentioned on the labeling of packaging. Therefore, the Greens have been called for tougher laws about the labeling to the Parliament. The second article is regarding the scandal of food labeling in Australia that has been quoted from Nick Xenophon, Independent Senator for South Australia. Generally the laws of Australia regarding labeling tend to mislead as these do not allow the consumers to know about the origins of food. Presently, the rule for describing a good is Made in Australia that means 51% of total value of food products have been transformed in Australia ( 2016). It took place with the palm oil as its production causes deforestation in south-eastern part of Asia and causes death of Orangutans. The recent labeling law seemed to be a bad indicator for both consumers and farmers in Australia, as people of Australia prefer more to buy local food than imported ones or the food substances that are mixture of local and imported materials. It has been found that 89% of Australian people believe that local food products are healthier and fresher than imported ones ( 2016). Thus, it can be said that the Australian people mainly prefer to purchase and support local food items but the politicians gave in to industry supplicants. The third article states that almost half of the snack food products that are labeled as natural are considered as unhealthy. It has been found that over 60% of Australians prefer to purchase drinks or food that are described as natural though the survey has reported that most of the food products labeled natural are unhealthy (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). 331 supermarket foods that are marked as natural were analyzed by the public health group LiveLighter and founded that 47% of the food products do not fall into one of five core food category (The Sydney Morning Herald 2016). As per the survey, it has been found that the products like Lollies, chips, muesli bars, biscuits, snack bars, crackers and tomato ketchup were among those products that display the words natures, nature or natural on their packaging but are unhealthy in actual ( 2016). The reason behind this is that the words like natures, nature or natural might mean less-processed, fewer ingre dients in some of the products or made locally. However, it has been found that most of these products contain high in saturated fat, salt and sugar, which are awful for health. The fourth article is regarding fake oregano in the spice rack. It has been found that Choice has identified food fraud within the supply chain of oregano, where only 5 out of total 12 samples were 100% oregano and remaining was fraud, as they were consisted of sumac leaves and olive leaves (Choice 2016). It has also been reported that in the last year in the U.K., 25% of the samples of oregano were adulterated (Choice 2016). In Australia, sample examination of total 12 different brands of oregano were done by collecting these samples from supermarkets, delis and grocers in Perth, Sydney and Melbourne (Choice 2016). This unique screening test resulted that adulterated oregano are produced by the brands like Master of Spices, Spice Co, Stonemill, Hoyts, Spencers, Menora and G Fresh. It has been found that ingredients other than oregano made up about 50% to 90% of the adulterated samples (Choice 2016). The reason behind this adulteration is still not known but it can be assumed that l ike the case of saffron fraud, the brands adulterated the oregano to make it a lower quality product and to earn a huge financial gain from this. In addition to this, in order to meet the demand of the customers, adulteration might have taken place or due to crop failure. It has been found that in 2015, people of Australia have spent about $115 million on spices and herbs as per the Retail World Annual Report and Oregano is considered as the staple food in the spice rack for most of the Australians (Choice 2016). Thus, the incidents of adulteration in the food industry should be abolished that take place by holding the hands of labeling and packaging. Conclusion Therefore, it can be concluded that the country Australia should modify its laws, rules and regulations regarding labeling and packaging in order to put stop to adulteration. In addition to this, the highlighted words like natural, natures or nature on the packaging of the food products also cause harm to human health. The laws of Australia regarding labeling should be changed in order to protect the consumers from harmful diseases like Hepatitis A that spread among the Australians due to the import of frozen berries from China. Thus, food businesses should follow all the new laws of labeling in order to maintain a healthy environment within the country. References Choice. 2016.Oregano fraud in Australia - CHOICE. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. De Mooij, M., 2013.Global marketing and advertising: Understanding cultural paradoxes. Sage Publications. 2016.Food Labelling - Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. 2016.Food Standards Australia New Zealand. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. Homburg, C., Kuester, S. and Krohmer, H., 2013.Marketing management: A contemporary perspective. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Jobber, D. and Ellis-Chadwick, F., 2012.Principles and practice of marketing(No. 7th). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Kotler, P., Burton, S., Deans, K., Brown, L. and Armstrong, G., 2015.Marketing. Pearson Higher Education AU. 2016.Food Labelling Scandal | Nick Xenophon - Independent Senator for South Australia. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. Perreault Jr, W., Cannon, J. and McCarthy, E.J., 2013.Basic marketing. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2016.All your favourite 'natural' snacks are not as healthy as you think. [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2016.Australian Breaking News Headlines World News Online | [online] Available at: [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. Wilson, A., Zeithaml, V.A., Bitner, M.J. and Gremler, D.D., 2012.Services marketing: Integrating customer focus across the firm. McGraw Hill.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

SUBSTANCE ABUSE HISTORY Essay Example For Students

SUBSTANCE ABUSE HISTORY Essay A diagnostic summary was completed on 10/6/96; Jack Smith is a 41-year-old white male currently living in a small community in southern Ohio. Jack came into the agency involuntarily; his involvement with the agency is a requisite of probation for assault and domestic violence. He was arrested for assaulting his wife during an alcoholic blackout; he was placed on probation for one year on the condition he participates in substance abuse counseling. This is Jacks second involvement with this agency as a result of his alcohol abuse. His first encounter was in 1985, when he underwent after-care counseling with an agency counselor who no longer is employed at this facility. We will write a custom essay on SUBSTANCE ABUSE HISTORY specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The apparent symptoms of chemical dependency were: 1) Loss of Control Jack had made several attempts at controlling the amounts of alcohol he consumed, but those times when he was able to abstain from alcohol were when he substituted marijuana and/or other drugs. 2) Blackouts these began occurring almost daily as a result of his alcohol and marijuana use. 3) Family History of Alcohol/Drug Usage Jacks natural and adoptive parents, as well as three natural brothers and three natural sisters have used alcohol and/or drugs heavily. 4) Changes in Tolerance when Jack began drinking at age 15, he soon developed a high tolerance for beer; by age 18, he was drinking six-to nine beers per occasion, and had begun smoking marijuana on these occasions. Before he stopped using marijuana in 1985, he was smoking one-two marijuana joints daily through the week, and five-six joints daily on weekends, as well as drinking the equivalent of a 12-pack of beer daily, occasionally chasing it with whiske y during the week, and on weekend, consuming the standard 12-pack of beer in addition to half of a fifth of whiskey mixed with soft drinks. 5) Physiological Symptomology Jack was diagnosed with bleeding ulcers shortly after he began drinking at age 15; when he entered his second treatment program in 1985, he was diagnosed with alcoholic hepatitis; currently, his flushed/tannish-looking skin and bloated appearance (edema) are indicative of further liver dysfunctions which can be attributed to his continued alcohol consumption. Bibliography:

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Anne Hutchinson essays

Anne Hutchinson essays Was Anne Hutchinson such a threat to the Massachusetts Bay Colony? Anne Hutchinson was a middle aged house wife who in 1638 was forced to leave her town and her life behind her, as she was excommunicated and banished from the puritan community. Like many religious zealots Anne and her family had fled from the unjust rule of the English church and boldly set forth to the new world. Anne and her family where prominent members of the puritan church and where widely respected in Boston Massachusetts. Anne was an educated, enlightened and an opinionated woman. Because of this free-thinking nature Anne was open to sharing her knowledge and did so by inviting people to here home on a set day every week. (page20) Here guests would be introduced to a variety of liberal and reformist views regarding many facets of the Puritan Church. At these meetings Anne was very informal and spread Antinomian beliefs that imbued a radical philosophy that Christians are not bound by established laws, especially moral laws, but should rely on faith and divine grace for sa lvation. (Confession page 26-27) Anne Hutchinson posed no physical danger to the citizens of the Massachusetts Bay area. However in a time when religious extremism was the backbone of society, Anne Hutchinsons extremist views threatened the puritan lifestyle by disregarding the foundations of the conservative puritan church. This kind of activity was considered unlawful in that the New World puritan settlement was though of as a grand holy mission (page 13) the success of which would provide a template for reforming religious world order. The Clerical as well as judicial bodies of Massachusetts recognized Anne as an antagonist to the Puritan mission. They quickly formulated a case to condemn Anne Hutchinson, thus making a statement to all other Antinomians that liberal ideology was not to be condoned. The case against Anne was loosely constructed and relied upon...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Media Report Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Media Report Analysis - Essay Example In December 2009, Lovett was suspended from the football club, and in February 2010, the club terminated his contract. The principal reason given was that he had brought the club into disrepute after sexual assault allegations had been made against him. The precise details of the contract are not provided, but this press release from the football club suggests that by attracting negative media attention, Lovett had done enough to be in breach of certain clauses. However, it is unlikely that this would have been sufficient reason to terminate the contract, given that, as the football club itself emphasises, Lovett remains ‘entitled to the presumption of innocence’. For this reason, however serious the nature of the allegations made against Lovett, to do more than indefinitely suspending the contract pending police investigation would have seemed a disproportionate response to the issue. The Club is therefore careful to emphasise that it is not for them to prejudge on innocence or guilt, which ‘is for the Court to decide’. Instead, what is emphasised is that these charges were not the sole reason for the termination of the contract. The press release therefore refers to ‘a series of acts and omissions in breach of his [Lovett’s] employment contract’. Little detail is given on what these breaches involved, apart from that he failed to fulfil his training commitments, and to maintain sufficient communication with officials at the football Club. While the sexual assault allegations made against him provided valid reason for the suspension of Lovett’s contract until the criminal justice process had taken its course, these breaches do seem to be adequate justification for the termination of the contract. If Lovett failed to turn up to training sessions with the rest of the team, then his performance on the field would clearly suffer, as would his

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Nursing Research Article Review Worksheet Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Nursing Article Review Worksheet - Research Paper Example Moreover, will music therapy to able to display the same ameliorating effects as it has done for other patients dealing with pain management? As music therapy has had a demonstrable effect in lessening the pain of many patients that suffer from other forms of disease, it is the goal of the research to determine if the same can be said for those patients who are suffering from breast cancer. The theoretical framework hinges upon the fact that music therapy has been demonstrably proven to reduce the prevalence of pain within other patients. As such, the researchers are acutely interested to see if such a theoretical framework can extend to their research group/question. In this way although the research questions are of a relatively complex nature, the theoretical framework within which the research is housed is quite simple. The article itself is highly quantitative as it seeks to understand the total benefits that music therapy will affect on the cancer patients through determinate and metricized system of quantifiable measurements. Furthermore, the consecutive and logical grouping of the data helps the analyst not only to quickly recognize the piece’s overall quantitative merit but also to rapidly draw inference from the numbers and statistics

Monday, November 18, 2019

Compare and contrast functionalist and marxist perspectives including Essay

Compare and contrast functionalist and marxist perspectives including feminist perspectives - Essay Example Interpretive sociology examines the meaning that is given to everyday life by those involved in its construction. The culture in which people live has a profound impact on what is perceived as reality. People act out their social roles, some of which are ascribed or given at birth, and others are achieved or gained through life experiences. The Functionalists and the New Right adopt a consensus perspective and uphold family values based on consensus. On the other hand, Feminism and Marxism are conflict perspectives, â€Å"which view family values as part of the problem in relation to power, control, status and inequality† (Squire, 2003: 69). The functionalist perspective of family is comprehensively explained by Parsons (1964), who identifies two major functions of the conjugal family. First, families facilitate the procreation of children and socialize them into adult roles of the kind which are accepted and expected by the social group in which they live. An example is the teaching of adult gender roles by the Western family. This is achieved by â€Å"the way in which children are dressed, the games they are allowed to play, how they are spoken to and the different attitudes of parents towards their children’s behaviour† (Bond, 1994: 95). Children are socialized into identifying with a gender role. Secondly, the family undertakes to re-inforce primary and secondary socialisation; and also stabilizes adult behaviour towards the stereotyped roles of husband and wife. Thus, in traditional conjugal families, parents act as role models for their children, besides influencing the way children identify adult gender roles. In industrialized societies, men usually work to earn money to support the family, hence their activities and interests are more focused outside the home than are those of women whose main occupations are domestic and therefore pertain to the home (Bond, 1994). Thus, the functionalist perspective views the relatively independent-functioning

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Dimensions Of Interprofesssional Practice Nursing Essay

The Dimensions Of Interprofesssional Practice Nursing Essay This reflective Commentary will focus on a patients discharge planning liaison drawn from my experience in attending a Multidisciplinary team Meeting (MDT) held at my Elective Placement (Cardiology Ward) in the context of the dimensions of Interprofesssional Working (IPW) I will preliminary define in the introduction IP working; recognize policies; introduce patient scenario, identify the Reflection Model which I will use to evaluate and analyse the Dimensions of IPW. IPW refers to professionals with different training backgrounds (medical, surgical, counselling, psychotherapy, Occupational Therapist, physiotherapist) sharing common goals an objectives but who make a difference but complimentary contribution to the given client group in order to provide holistic care (Leathard, 2003). IPW has been highlighted by the United Kingdom (UK) government in a series of policies which shaped and continue to shape the way services and professionals work interprofesssionally. In 1998 The Department of Health (DoH) (1998) encouraged joint working through integrated provision. In 1999 papers such as DoH (1999) re-enforced that the effective care is the product of interagency working, promoting NHS to move towards interagency collaborative working or IPW in a shift from institutional to community-based care. The DoH (2000) a ten year programme of redevelopment practice to design and promotes a patient centered service and promote IP and Holistic care. One of the areas the DOH (2000) considered needed improving was the older generation patient discharge. To combat this, standard two of The Single Assessment Process (SAP) and Intermediate care services (ICS) was introduced by the National Service Framework for Older People by DoH (2001a) and this required services and professiona ls to work together in a co-ordinated assessment of needs for patients. From this, House of Commons Health Committee (2002) called for a number of key changes, one of them being a named Care Manager to coordinate all stages of the patient journey through hospital, up to and beyond discharge. And this coordination liaison could take the form of an MDT discharge planning meeting (DP). New ways of working have to be found that cross professional boundaries, in order to allow a more flexible approach to care delivery (DoH, 2002). To achieve this, the Government introduced Interprofesssional Education (IPE) in pre-registered students modules and their aim was to integrate IPE into their curriculum, enabling students to develop transferable skills that will facilitate communication and collaboration in the future (Barr, et al., 2005). Rattay and Mehanna (2008) suggest that as students should make an effort to attend MDT meetings to develop IP. I have used pseudonyms throughout my reflective commentary, to protect confidentiality in accordance with the Data Protection Act (1998) and the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2009). I will refer to the patient as Sam. Sam is a 74 year old lady who lives alone in a ground floor flat. Sam has no family living locally however her neighbour visits regularly. Sam suffers from Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). Prior to admission Sam was fully independent at house cooping with her Activities of Daily living (ADLs) with slight difficulty due to breathing and poor balance (which Sam reported to suffering from for years). Sam was originally brought into hospital via accident and emergency by her neighbour as her breathing became progressively worse. There are many potential models of reflection. I will use Gibbs (1988) Model of Reflection (Appendix 1) as I find it more straightforward due to being depicted as a cycle, encouraging critical evaluation and analysis of the incident. Cyclical models are suggested by Ghaye (1998) to deepen awareness and increase knowledge and skilfulness from repeated movements around them. Reflection will able me to learn from the experience and identify my learning needs in areas which solicit improvements (Allen, et al., 2008). As suggested by Price (2006) Reflection makes a connection between theory, policies and practice required to develop evidence-based practice, professional and academic growth throughout my career; important in the development of lifelong learning (NMC (2009). Description The MDT meeting was held at the sisters office. The MDT consisted of a Ward Nurse (who was there intermittently due to staff levels), a Heart Failure Nurse Specialist (HFNS). Care Manager (Social Worker), Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist, Doctor (Cardiologist Register) and myself. The meeting was led by the Doctor who gave an introductory overview of the Sams social situation and medical condition. The Doctor recommended that Sam was medically fit for discharge with a referral for HFNS community visits, as further health education was necessary. The physiotherapist suggested Sam was regaining confidence in her mobility but recommended further input to improve Sams balance and posture. The ward Nurse suggested Sams Nursing needs were stable and no input was required on discharged, upon this, I respectively argued that Sam discussed with myself earlier in the shift that she felt she was not coping at home and would feel more confident if she had minimal assistance with her ADLs at home. The Doctor re-directed the question to the HFNS, who re-directed the question to the Ward Nurse, both dismissing my input. At this point I respectfully assured the MDT that what I was advocating, it was also documented in Sam care plan. Subsequently, The HFNS requested Sams discharge planning to be discussed in a second meeting.. Following to this, The Occupational Therapist recommended she would liaise with Sam regarding any house equipment that would facilitate Sams ADLs. The social worker (Care manager) who would be coordinating all stages of Sams journey through hospital, up to and beyond discharge, organise possible (i) care (ii) meals on wheels. The Doctor summarised the MDT plan and rescheduled the meeting for 2 days to allow professionals to liaise with Sam in order to evaluate the discharge planning in partnership with Sam. Doctor was reluctant to reschedule and to change Sams expected day of discharge (EDD), it seemed. In the follow up MDT meeting, Sam was medical ly fit for discharge, her it seemed, had improved, as had her slightly her confidence but she could still benefit from further rehabilitation; therefore, Sam was referred to Intermediate Care Services (ICS) (Appendix 2) for further rehabilitation in the community, with out-patient medical follow up and HFNS home visits. Feelings When I asked my Mentor to attend the MDT meeting, I was excited as I was going to be able to see how the IPW provides a positive outcome for the patients. Slightly anxious but ready to be a Patient advocate. Soon it dawned on me when I was introduced to other professionals and given opportunities to work with them and I felt slightly insecure at the thought of having to expose myself to the criticisms of others. When Discussing Sams DP I commented on her behalf the feeling of slight insecurity was soon overpowered by a feeling of achievement as I was in a position to be her advocate appropriately and contribute in making a difference to her life for better. This feeling overpowered the shuttled frustration I felt when the Doctors dismissed initially my input but understandable due to my still pre-reg position, he needed reassurance as this input was going to change Sam EDD. As the meeting was lead by the Doctor I had inadvertently imposed a sense of hierarchy upon the group. I soon f elt that the hierarchy, even after the incident above, was not actually evident once a patient DP was being discussed as every professional was having a say and all professional seemed to understand each others responsibilities, roles and the documentation used involved all MDT input. I felt that through the discussions each professionals identify was gain and respect was given accordingly, although, I considered there was possibility of gaining a professional personality stereotypes and therefore ultimately a hierarchy may develop in future group meetings. By the end of it, I still felt slightly daunted to be in a MDT meeting working with professionals who knew so much (i) HFNS who developed their careers to a point of extreme knowledge, it overwhelmed me, that I am still just in the beginning of an extraordinary journey. Evaluation In accordance to Holland, et al. (2005) and Gonseth, et al. (2004) Heart Failure Nurse Specialist (HFNS) input was fundamental as HF patients as Sam require close clinical management and encouragement to manage their symptoms in order to remain in the community (James and Sarah, 2008). Furthermore, Blue, at al. (2001) randomised controlled trial suggested that HFN have the ability to focus not only on the clinical needs of the patient, but the educational and supportive needs as well as establishing effective liaison between health and social care. Although HFNS is important in the provision of Sams Good Health in the community, without front line staff (i) ward nurse to document appropriately and report to the appropriate professional and act as an advocate for patients in meeting such this, the provision of IP working and Safe Discharge Planning would be compromised (Atwal and Caldwel (2006). Record keeping was to be commended as the Discharge planning Form (DPF) (Appendix 3) was filled in from admission and updated regularly by Sams Multidisciplinary team regarding assessment, planning, and implementation and evaluation goals specific to each professional to establish safe discharge. Effective record keeping is the key factor to effective care and continuation of care of Patient; and a Code of Conduct requirement for excellence practice and care (NMC, 2009). The Community Rehabilitation/Intermediate Care Services (ICS) Appendix 3. Referral was suggested appropriately in order to meet Sams needs, in accordance with the DoH (2001a, 2001b) agrees that ICS establishes IP working and avoids duplication, enhances communication and allows each team member to view and check the patient notes at all times. Furthermore Godfrey, et al, (2005) suggests that it enhances Holistic care. According to Leathard and Cook (2009) Sams care could be considered Holistic as her physical, psychological, sociological, spiritual needs were addressed, and Sams views were considered alongside any recommendations offered by all the different multi-disciplinary teams in a mutual participation in a shared decision-making partnership. With changes in Nhs such as patient-centred care (DoH, 1998), and the establishment of sophisticated holistic approach to health and social care, one of the key features of Sams patient centred care is the development and implementation of integrated care pathways (ii) collaborative care plans such ICS, providing Sam with a continuity of care. MDT meeting structure seemed to reflect The DoH (1998) in its drive for a first class service as staff seemed to clear understands of how their own roles fit with others in both the health and social care professions. Although, Role Clarity was predominant and significant, the Status caused distress within the MDT; it made some members feel their opinions are not as important as others (Robinson, et al., 2005). Furthermore, at certain points of the discussion the blurring of the boundaries of ones discipline Ward Nurse and (HFSN) (i) Doctor redirected the question about Sam to the HFSN first instead of the ward Nurse. I agree with Molyneux (2001) is a factor that may create a competitive atmosphere rather than a collaborative one. In addition to the group dynamics, the situation of Sam needing care set up also highlighted the tension between professionals and in a sense organizational aims and resources. Analysis The DoH (2000, 2006) stressed the need for team working to helping rove the quality of care to patients and encourage role development to meet the demands of IP working. (i) Registered nurse specialists are expanding their roles and skills in numerous clinical areas (DoH 1999, 2006) due to patients diversity of needs in todays society (Furlong and Smith, 2005). According to DoH (2000, 2003) and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2003) Heart failure care and management is one of this areas which had an increase in nurse specialists (HFNS) in a broad evaluation by Patterden, et al., (2008) which showed that HFNS reduced (i) all-cause admissions by an average of 35 per cent an average saving of  £1,826 per patient is gained after the costs of the nurse have been deducted. Furthermore, a systematic review by Holland, et al., (2005) argues that HFNS management of HF associated with (reducing readmissions, improving patients quality of life, Like Sam and reducing finan cial costs is more efficient compared with medical management. In outcome, Hewison (2004) and Abbot, et al., (2005) agreed that although the development of roles and increased flexibility is usually a benefit to many professions, it can be seen as a threat for their own interest and power status, generating a resistance to IP collaborations. Moreover according to Molyneux (2001) a tribalism sense. This is normally the professional at the top of the hierarchy (i) as when the doctor was resistant to move the EED. Furthermore, as far back as 1998 when (DoH, 1998) was published, Stapleton (1998) suggested that Collaborative working emphasis that demarcations and hierarchical relations between professions are neither sustainable nor appropriate. Although, in Sams MDT it was apparent in agreement with Hean (2006) my preliminary feelings of hierarchy are common and traditionally hierarchies place more power to the medical profession. The tension seemed in a way to be overcome through the structured but open discussion regarding Sams needs which according to Freeth (2001) open discussion helps develop the team and recognise the benefits and the diversity and development of skills. Martin and Roger (2004) highlight that it is important to premise a clear understanding and appreciation not just for the roles but also for the pressures of other professionals (i) performance targets to meet. The Qualitative methodology questionnaire led interviews and focus group (18 cases studiers across Europe) by Coxon (2005) suggestion that IP working promotes job satisfaction, improved team working, good communication and enhance co-operation with other agencies, and identifies IP difficulties to be due to organizational boundaries and financial limits. Additionally, Hubbard and Themessi-Huber (2005) used the same method as Coxon (2005) although he identified that a main difficulty to IP is managers focusing on policies and changes of services: arranging MDT meeting whilst front line staff, as ward nurses need to adapt to practicalities of the IP. Atwal, and Caldwell (2006) argues the importance of staff ratios as a barrier to nurses developing IP practices, furthermore a study carried by both with nineteen nurses in acute health care ward, it is spotted that in MDT meetings not all the professionals involved in the care of a patient are invited and that nurses did not regularly att end the meetings due to staff ratios. Another conclusion of this study is that nurses not always express their opinion for fear of being made a scapegoat, the result from the research show as well, that consultants and medical staff usually speak first and with more confidence on all issues. In divergence, Barrett and Keeping (2005) argues that collaborative working should minimise staff pressures from a ward level to community (primary and secondary setting) but research done within this Era of IPW still shows that at a nursing level in a 2005 survey by RCN (2006) found that 49% of nurses left the NHS due to stress/workload problems. Horder (2004) and Pullon and Fry (2005) goes further to suggest to overcome the work pressure, shared decision making is the ultimate hallmark of partnership and this requires distribution of power or the empowerment of all involved within the multidisciplinary professionals in a manner that would equalize the hierarchy through (i) through IPE. It is essential that health and social care professionals realise the important of IPW as it has now been recognised that a single profession can no longer deliver the complex patient care that is demanded nowadays, a holistic approach is required (CAIPE, 2007). Rattay and Mehanna, (2008) suggest in summary that structured MDT meeting provides the discharge process with a structure that is organised professionally and timely, allowing patients to return home earlier safely, consequently reducing the NHS cost, minimising the risk of hospital acquired infections, promoting independence and enabling patients to return back to their homes and community, like Sam. Lack of co-operation between agencies has led to a failure of service (Glasby, et al., 2004). Communication within the team is also an important issue to good collaborative working, developing ways to communicate and to work together is the key for successful IP working (Abbott, et al., 2005). The NMC (2004) advises that at the point of registration students should have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with colleagues and other departments to improve patient care. Cook, et al., (2004) identify that communication and decision making are very important for teams. Larking and Callaghan (2005) argue that teams who do not regularly hold meetings for policy making and resolutions of differences, should not be considered a team, these findings are also emphasized by Molyneux (2001) who states that communication is supported with weekly MDT meetings in order to evaluate and plan patient centred care delivery. Conclusion This reflective commentary allows me to connect policies, NMC requirements, theory and practice. It provided me with the assurance that the dimensions of IPW is complex but possible in practice IPE exists. It highlighted that different professionals have to deal with their own perceptions and adapt to changes. There is no doubt that IPW promotes a better and more holistic care and the documentation in place promotes further patient-centered care. The MDT gave me the opportunity to work closely with other professionals and understanding further their roles. This will help me to effectively work together in the future. Action Plan I will allocate the Action Plans in my professional portfolio to demonstrate achievement in clinical practice linked with theoretical knowledge. All my Action Plan are made SMART Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time (Drew and Bingham, 2004) 1. Inter-Professional To develop an awareness of the roles and services provided in the inter-professional team and identify examples of how this is appropriate in delivering appropriate patient/client focused care. 2. Enhance my knowledge about decision-making processes within care management 3. Continue to reflect in and on Practice therefore to participate in further process of reflection to establish my own learning needs (Appendix 4).

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Star Wars: An Intergalactic Joyride :: essays research papers fc

Star Wars: An Intergalactic Joyride "Star Wars" is the highest grossing movie of all time. It is also one of my favorites. It was released in May 1977 and re-released in a restored and enhanced Special Edition just last month. There are many different criteria that can be used to describe Å’Star Wars' appeal. Gary Arnold and Edward Rothstein, two movie critics who had the opportunity to review this great movie, explain its appeal in very much the same way. There is a difference though. Arnold reviewed the original Å’Star Wars' twenty years ago and Rothstein reviewed the recent Special Edition. While they reviewed slightly different versions, they both came to the conclusion that Star Wars is a great movie based on similar criteria. They judged Å’Star Wars' on its ability to draw on classic styles and timeless stories to create something new and absolutely original. The main factor in both of their positive reviews is the skill of writer and director George Lucas to blend the old with the new. They were both impressed with his miraculously fresh configuration of many different themes from classic film and mythic origin into a cohesive and entertaining movie. He has achieved a witty and exhilarating synthesis of themes and cliches from the Flash Gordon and Buck Rogers comics and serials, plus such related but less expected sources as the western, the pirate melodrama, the aerial combat melodrama and the samurai epic. The movie's irresistible stylistic charm derives from the fact that Lucas can draw upon a variety of action-movie sources with unfailing deftness and humor. He is in superlative command of his own movie-nurtured fantasy life. Gary Arnold, Washington Post Staff Writer Mr. Rothstein along the same lines as Mr. Arnold, mentions that Å’the plot line of Star Wars follows the mythic archetechture outlined by Joseph Campbell in his study of myth, "The Hero with a Thousand Faces," which has influenced Mr. Lucas.' Another aspect, unique to Rothstein's review of the new Special Edition but not quite different from Arnold's assessment, is the way in which the movie celebrates the past and not the future. This aspect of Å’Star Wars', Rothstein says, is what Å’screams out in opposition to the high-budget, high-tech, special- effect spectaculars that it (Star Wars) spawned.' This is where, Rothstein says, that Å’Star Wars' gets its authenticity. The whimsical ramshackleness is actually meant to be a sign of the heroes' authenticity: what is older is more powerful... technology, when it appears in Å’Star Wars,' is evil, ghastly, massive and brutish..."advanced" invention is most evident in the space ships of the evil

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Should Cellphones Be Allowed in Class

Should Cell Phones Be Allowed In The Classroom? Personally, I think cell phones should be allowed in the classrooms as they can benefit students in many ways. Student’s listen to music on them, do research on them, and they benefit students with individual education plans. To start, cell phones should be allowed in the classroom, as student’s use them to listen to music. In addition, listening to music helps people concentrate on their learning as it avoids them from getting distracted at what is going on around them. Also, listening to music helps student’s deal with emotional problems, stress, etc.Therefore, students should be allowed to bring their cell phones to class. Next, I think students should be able to bring their cell phones to class considering it is helpful when it comes to them having to do research on something. Cell phones are helpful to students when it comes to doing research, as they can save what they researched on their phone and come back t o it later. Furthermore, cell phones are good when it comes to needing to do research as sometimes you could wait days to use the school computers, but if you have a cell phone with a data plan you can have all the research you want at the end of your finger tips.In conclusion, cell phones should be allowed in the class as they do benefit student’s when it comes to doing research. Finally, cell phones should be allowed in the classroom, as they can benefit students with individual education plans. For instance, cell phones can help benefit student’s with I. E. P’s because they have cameras on them which student’s can use to take pictures of their assignments who cannot write, student’s can also type up their work and print it, and lastly if they have a hard time when it comes to reading something they can use applications like Kurzweil or dragon and have it audio read to them.To summarize, I think cell phones should be allowed in class, as they are a very useful device when it comes down to students with individual education plans learning. To conclude, students should have the privilege of bringing their cell phones to class, as they can help benefit students in their learning in several ways. For example, they can be used as a calculator for math. To wrap it up, students should be able to bring their mobile devices to class, as they can benefit students in so many ways.

Friday, November 8, 2019

War Powers Act essays

War Powers Act essays The farmers of our Constitution recognized the need for separate powers as well as checks and balances among the executive, legislative and judicial branches. This in turn helps to provide for the common defense. Separation of powers prevents one branch from becoming excessively dominant over the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America.: In order to accede to the preamble and adhere in its goals, the Constitution ensures this is by clearly stating the authority of the Congress in Article I Section 8 and the authority of the President in Article II Section 2. These fixed powers in the Constitution clearly state that one cannot act without permission or authorization of another. It is designed to that one cannot take acti on without consent of the other branch. This is prevalent in Article I Section 7 that states the process of how a law is passed. The fact that there are clear steps to the initiation of a law states the importance of separation of powers so that a single dominant branch does not arise. One of the biggest debated concerning the separation of powers it the attempt to determine which branch has the constitutional authority to undertake the involvement of war. This brings us to the argument of the constitutionality of the War Powers Resolution passed by congress in 1973 in effort to balance powers between congress and the president. Section 3 of the War Powers Resolution act states: The President in every possible instance shall consult with Congress before introducing United States Armed Forces into hostilities or into situation where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances, and after every suc...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Why Go to College Essays

Why Go to College Essays Why Go to College Essay Why Go to College Essay Before I read the short essay â€Å"ATTITUDE† by Charles Swindoll, attitude means mere a physical position or a manner to me. As a non-native English speaker, I just consider the word â€Å"attitude† as a way to show one’s posture toward something. However, I could not help admitting that my concept of attitude was totally wrong right after meeting Swindoll’s essay. I always thought that someone’s success depends on his gift or intelligence which comes with passion.On the contrary, Swindoll defines attitude as the more important thing than anything else and even the only thing with which we can do to change the inevitable. According to Swindoll’s theory, having a certain attitude can decide how one’s life would be. Generally I agree with his argument. Surely his point that the most significant thing in one’s life can be the way how he responds to his circumstances is right. However, there are still variou s obstacles that cannot be overcome only with attitude. Before have a positive attitude, we need to have a strong will power.Also before getting a will power, we must experience something in failure or in need desperately. Nevertheless his argument can be applied only after some prerequisites like a will power or desperation are satisfied; I am willing to use his thought for my successful college daily life. I would take a positive attitude on learning process, so I will be careful not to be absent from class and try to be punctual as possible as I can. Also I will apply it to making a good relationship with others. First of all, I will apply this attitude theory to the relationship with my son right away.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Corporate citizenship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Corporate citizenship - Essay Example in education and earning satisfactory returns on resources drawn from the community by avoiding exploitation. This concept in many instances is taken to be a philanthropic move by companies but this is not the case. It is rather a well thought out process whose execution has followed clear business strategies. This process for the management is not that easy as they need to balance the company’s profitability goals as well as society’s needs (both in short and long-term basis). There are certain benchmarks that can be followed e.g. the Millennium Development Goals and NEPAD (Levine 2010). Companies invest huge resources towards Corporate Citizenship and it can therefore make one wonder what they stand to gain while considering on one hand that a business’ business is business and not diversion of resources to non-business ventures (Levine 2010). Businesses engage in Corporate Citizenship primarily to benefit the community in which they operate. However, this act trickles down to the business in form of; better financial performance due to marketing concept coupled with the program, lower employee turnover and higher morale, reduced regulatory supervision, customer loyalty and brand image enhancement being one of the key

Friday, November 1, 2019

Explain the logic behind the ideal of compassion in the Mahayana Essay

Explain the logic behind the ideal of compassion in the Mahayana perspective - Essay Example Bodhisattvas or the enlightened beings are characterized by a number of features that distinguish them from the arhants (Humboldt, n.d.). The bodhisattva path lays emphasis on karuna (compassion). The Mahayana tradition explains that arhant is a noble path as it stresses that every being should concentrated on the spiritual achievement of one’s self but in doing this one does not embrace the suffering of others. Buddha intended that Buddhism should be used as a vehicle to liberate all sentient beings from sufferings. This is possible through Mahayana which believes that compassion and compassionate love for all beings makes one help others to attain the same liberation. The basic doctrine of Mahayana centers around the tenet that eternal Buddha is present but hidden in all sentient beings and it is possible to understand this presence through the process of liberation from sufferings. Hence it focuses on the bodhisattva path and emphasizes that this liberation has to be for all beings and not for the self alone (Kaplan, 1998). To help all beings liberate from sufferings requires compassion for all beings. The goal of Mahayana is not to remain an arhant but to attain buddhahood. Thus to save all sentient beings from samsara is the basic concept on which Mahayana is based. Various definitions of compassion can be found. For instance, karuna in Pali is related to our concern for others. It is more than an attitude of mind. It is anukampa and daya. Compassion is essential for a just and a harmonious society. It is essential towards the path of wisdom; it is an action towards liberation by those who have become enlightened and by those who sincerely follow the path towards attaining it. When others suffer it makes the heart of good people tremble (kampa) and this is compassion (Jenkins, 2000). Effort to demolish others’ suffering is karuna. Mahayana emphasizes that one should postpone one’s liberation so

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Protection of Intellectual Property, Confidentiality, and Freedom of E Essay

Protection of Intellectual Property, Confidentiality, and Freedom of Expression on the Internet - Essay Example Internet suppression can maintain its vital role in providing an efficient and democratic means of distributing information around the world. The act of hate speech, pornography and the like are very alarming in the country as it can affect the lives of the people involved with some sort of wrong information. These are my main concern for opposing the use of free speech. Websites that contain pornographic and obscene material and information are also widespread on the internet which can give a bad effect to the users. Even it is impossible to totally discontinue its operation on the internet, the government shall act on carrying out the censorship by filtering its every feature and applying the rules in creating a useful website.As the technologies progress, any person with an internet connection has the potential to reach other people with anonymity thus, syndicates can easily use cybercrime to perform their bad intention with the advantage of hidden personal identity from the law e nforcers. Crimes and dilemma which emerged from improper usage of the internet can be reduced if people using it are responsible enough of their right and if the law is implemented strictly.Encouraging awareness and advocacy in protecting one’s own right as well as the rights of others will be of great help in minimizing the risks of crimes and the dilemma associated with internet use.Legal aspects related to utilization of networked information devices and technologies such as the existence of cyber law will also help in regulating some of the most important topics including intellectual property, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Agro Processing Industries Essay Example for Free

Agro Processing Industries Essay Rural Entrepreneurship through Agro-Processing Industries Mrs. P. Geetha, Lecturer in Economics, Sri GVG Visalakshi College for Women, Udumalpet, TamilNadu, India In India there are about 6. 3 million villages and 340 million workers in rural unorganized sector who contribute 60% of national income. About 75% of populations who live in villages have to utilize the village resources. In rural areas mainly three types of economic activities are being undertaken. These activities are: primary, secondary and tertiary activities. When we talk of rural development, the emphasis is on the development of agriculture, industry, trade and service sectors. Among these activities, agriculture till now is the main occupational activity in the rural areas as most of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood and employment. A small stimulation will dynamite the rural economy and lead to improved quality of life. Rural areas must try for better utilization of human resources to improve the rural economy. Promoting agro-based industries, cottage and small-scale industries would serve the purpose of rural entrepreneurship development. Importance of Agro-Processing Industries Agro processing could be defined as set of techno economic activities carried out for conservation and handling of agricultural produce and to make it usable as food, feed, fibre, fuel or industrial raw material. Hence, the agro-processing industry is regarded as the sunrise sector of the Indian economy. Properly developed, agro-processing sector would not only encourage rural entrepreneurship but also can make India a major player at the global level for marketing and supply of processed food, feed and a wide range of other plant and animal products. Categories of Agro – Industry i) Village Industries owned and run by rural households with very little capital investment and a high level of manual labour. Ex. pickles, papad, etc. ii) Small scale industry characterized by medium investment and semi-automation. Ex. edible oil, rice mills, etc. iii) Large-scale industry involving large investment and a high level of automation. Ex. Sugar, jute, cotton mills, etc Prospects The agro processing sector offers scope for development of several industries such as solvent extraction, oleoresins, kinnow/orange juice, malt extracts, floriculture and a host of other items.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Aline Helgs Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912 :: Aline Helg History Cuba Essays

Aline Helg's Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912 Introduction: Within Aline Helg’s book titled, Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912, she includes many historical events that serve as a foundation for her arguments in order to emphasize the "black struggle for equality" starting in the late 19th century and according to her, still transpiring today. These events are, the formation of the first black independent political party called the, Partido Independiente de Color (146), the United States’ role during intervention and the black struggle to overcome the system of racial hierarchies that had developed in Cuba. Blacks had to fight for equality while simultaneously being, "†¦accused of racism and antinationalism". (145) According to Helg, this placed an undue burden on the black groups that were organizing to demand their "rightful share" because it made divided the goals of their plight into many different facets, thus yielding a lack of unity necessary for their success. During the United Stat es’ intervention, Cuban nationalism as a whole was threatened which also served to downplay the importance of demands being made by the Partido’s leader, Estenoz. The United States displayed a greater concern on the affirmation of its power as an international police, rather than allying its resources to help the indignant and discriminated Afro-Cubans. All of these circumstances illustrate the extremities of the political and social institutions that the Afro-Cubans attempted to defeat but could not. They also exemplify the perpetuation of the black struggle, and how it affected and continues to affect the lives of Afro-Cubans in present-day Cuba. Racial Hierarchies and Ideologies in Cuba The entire struggle that Helg is alluding to in her book is founded within the racial hierarchies and racial ideologies that were formed early on in Cuba’s history. Several aspects of Cuban society (as discussed by Helg) served to foster the racism and the antagonistic attitudes that whites had towards the Afro-Cubans. An acute example of the inequality that the blacks were made to suffer was the denial of citizenship after 1886. According to Helg, Afro-Cubans were denied the titles of "Don" and "Doà ±a" on their identity cards. This was a blatant form of discrimination against because it prevented blacks from being considered as first class citizens, "†¦despite the fact that they were full taxpayers". (25) What Helg means by this is that even though the Afro-Cubans were participating in the economic spectrum of Cuba, they were still denied access into the political and social arenas.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Ban a Pit bull, Save a Life: Why the Ontario Ban against Pit bull Terri

â€Å"Mom! Mom! The dogs got Cody. The dogs got Cody† (Vancouver Sun, 2007). Just a few days after Christmas in 2004, these are the cries that awoke Sheri Fontaine. Fontaine raced from her bed into the living room to find her three-year old son, Cody Fontaine, savaged by the dogs that were staying temporarily in her house. Tragically, young Cody did not survive the attack. A young life taken, a mother’s life ruined. Sadly, this story is not as uncommon as one of violence against people, they exhibit highly stubborn characteristics that make them difficult to control, and such bans have proven to be extremely effective. In 2005, the Ontario Liberal government passed The Dog Owner’s Liability Act: a ban against pit bull terriers in the province. After the bill passed, Attorney General Michael Bryant said, â€Å"Mark my words, Ontario will be safer† (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). The legislation prevented people from acquiring a number of breeds of dogs that would be classified as pit bulls. In addition, Ontario residents who already owned a pit bull terrier prior to the ban were required to neuter and muzzle their animals. Such policies against this breed of animal are not unprecedented. In fact, similar laws are already in place in Britain, France and Germany. In Canada, Winnipeg has had a ban against pit bull terriers in place for 20 years (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). Ontario and other regions have imposed these sanctions because the evidence clearly indicates that pit bull terriers pose a much higher than average risk to people. Pit bull terriers have a long track record of attacks against people and animals. A 1987 study of a particularly savage attack against a child was documented by four doctors in the hopes... ... An Analysis of the Pit bull Terrier Controversy. Anthrozoos, 2-8. Raghavan, M. (2008). Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990–2007. The Canadian Verterinary Journal, 577– 581. Ruryk, Z. (2008, March 2). One endangered species: But pit bull attacks are down. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from Toronto Sun: Smith, C. (2009, April 9). Media coverage of Surrey pit bull attack prompts protest by Vancouver pit bull owners. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from 213929/media-coverage-surrey-pit-bull-attack-prompts-protest-vancouver-pit-bull-owners Vancouver Sun. (2007, February 6). Kids' cries woke mom of boy, 3, killed by dogs' bites. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from f9a5ab25d2a5 Ban a Pit bull, Save a Life: Why the Ontario Ban against Pit bull Terri â€Å"Mom! Mom! The dogs got Cody. The dogs got Cody† (Vancouver Sun, 2007). Just a few days after Christmas in 2004, these are the cries that awoke Sheri Fontaine. Fontaine raced from her bed into the living room to find her three-year old son, Cody Fontaine, savaged by the dogs that were staying temporarily in her house. Tragically, young Cody did not survive the attack. A young life taken, a mother’s life ruined. Sadly, this story is not as uncommon as one of violence against people, they exhibit highly stubborn characteristics that make them difficult to control, and such bans have proven to be extremely effective. In 2005, the Ontario Liberal government passed The Dog Owner’s Liability Act: a ban against pit bull terriers in the province. After the bill passed, Attorney General Michael Bryant said, â€Å"Mark my words, Ontario will be safer† (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). The legislation prevented people from acquiring a number of breeds of dogs that would be classified as pit bulls. In addition, Ontario residents who already owned a pit bull terrier prior to the ban were required to neuter and muzzle their animals. Such policies against this breed of animal are not unprecedented. In fact, similar laws are already in place in Britain, France and Germany. In Canada, Winnipeg has had a ban against pit bull terriers in place for 20 years (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). Ontario and other regions have imposed these sanctions because the evidence clearly indicates that pit bull terriers pose a much higher than average risk to people. Pit bull terriers have a long track record of attacks against people and animals. A 1987 study of a particularly savage attack against a child was documented by four doctors in the hopes... ... An Analysis of the Pit bull Terrier Controversy. Anthrozoos, 2-8. Raghavan, M. (2008). Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990–2007. The Canadian Verterinary Journal, 577– 581. Ruryk, Z. (2008, March 2). One endangered species: But pit bull attacks are down. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from Toronto Sun: Smith, C. (2009, April 9). Media coverage of Surrey pit bull attack prompts protest by Vancouver pit bull owners. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from 213929/media-coverage-surrey-pit-bull-attack-prompts-protest-vancouver-pit-bull-owners Vancouver Sun. (2007, February 6). Kids' cries woke mom of boy, 3, killed by dogs' bites. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from f9a5ab25d2a5

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Chi Mei Optoelectronics Essay

1. What prompted CMO to diversify from its core petrochemical base? What were the risks involved? In the late 1980s, Ho started to think that the future for petrochemicals in Taiwan was not very bright. At that time, he made the first visit to the nascent Hsinchu Science-Based Park where he found that everybody was doing pretty well. Then he began to think diversifying into something. Ho’s good friend Wu had been the principal investigator on the first TFT-LCD research project at the Electronics Research Service Organization (ERSO), part of the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). ITRI had been responsible for the original technology transfer of RCA’s CMOS semiconductor process from New Jersey to Taiwan. Under Wu, ITRI had begun an investigation of small TFT-LCDs in 1989 and had moved on to three- to six-inch technology in 1990. But unlike what happened with TSMC, the Taiwanese government suddenly cut the budget, leaving ITRI without enough capital to comple te the plant’s construction. Wu suggested to Ho and Shi that manufacturing color filter arrays for LCD flat panels would be a very good move for Chi Mei, but Shi disagreed. But in 1997, the petrochemical industry suffered a severe contraction due to the Asian economic crisis. They asked Mitsubishi who said color filter was good. So Dr. Wu stayed outside for almost one and a half years until the founder decided to approve the plan. In fact, Chi Mei had been tracking the TFT-LCD industry since 1996, as many of the key ingredients used in fabricating TFT-LCD panels were based on materials derived from petrochemicals and were therefore closely related to CMC’s core products. But Shi was skeptical of direct investment because he was not sure whether his company could get a grasp on the core technologies. Shi soon recognized TFT-LCD as a â€Å"once in 100-year opportunity for Taiwan.† But the TFT-LCD industry counted only Japan, Korea, and Taiwan as major producers, and most of the demand at the time was coming from Taiwanese notebook computer manufactures. Japanese manufacturers supplied most of the color filters which was a lucrative business. Ho explained that by moving to become a full-line TFT-LCD producer, the company would be able to address a much larger market. Another consideration in the decision to enter the TFT-LCD industry was that TFT process technologies were not entirely new territory for CMC. CMC already possessed many chemical processing and mechanical technologies. Although CMC  was privately held, profitability from its petrochemicals operations made it cash-rich, with almost all of its credit lines unused. But Ho and Wu realized the importance of being a public company in order to attract the right talent, and they were able to convince Shi. CMO’s 2006 Annual Report detailed a long line of fund-raising activities to finance what subsequently turned into a huge string of investments. The risks involved were relying on the technical, financial and merchandising resources of the original product line and the company need acquiring new lines and markets, skills, techniques and facilities. 2. How did CMO implement its strategy of being a leading LCD manufacturer? Ho realized that CMO need a different organizational structure with different resources, processes, and priorities, so he opted for a separate subsidiary, with an independent structure and compensation model as well. He redesigned the pay structure by enlarging the compensation differential across various rankings and put in a larger performance bonus component.   They all recognized the importance of attracting key talent and the value such talent placed on an autonomous unit structure with decentralized management and the flexibility to act quickly. From the start, CMO’s strategy was different from other Taiwanese panel makers. CMO licensed the basic technology from ERSO, and then modified the licensed TFT structured and developed a new structure in Fujitsu’s fab. Since this new TFT structure was their own design, they could modify the process by themselves as needed. CMO was able to take advantage of one of the industry downturn cycles to enter the industry. The pioneering Japanese manufacturers were thus able to extend their window of profitability by generating licensing income. So CMO was able to test out some new, experimental cell structure designs using Fujitsu’s equipment and develop its internal processed as it was building its own factory. CMO also agreed to work as a Fujitsu supplier for LCD panels. In essence, they exchanged their production capacity for Fujitsu’s technical support. One of the key philosophies that CMO has is that it doesn’t outright purchase a complete technology package. It tries to develop what it needs to and it may put in some basic technology or hire an outside consultant to develop its proprietary, internal technology. What that allows it to do is to understand that technology much better and it’s much quicker for it to improve the technology. In mid-1999, in addition to becoming a fo undry supplier to  Fujitsu, CMO licensed Fujitsu’s MVA technology, which enabled wide viewing angles for large-size TV panels. CMO’s R&D team subsequently achieved several breakthroughs while working with the original MVA technology, developing its own proprietary â€Å"Omniview Color,† which significantly reduced the color shift of skin tones when viewing the panel from wide angles. In 2002, along with other Taiwanese LCD peers, CMO licensed a set of common TFT-LCD patents from the ERSO unit of ITRI. As CMO developed its capabilities, it sometimes took some major technological risks. While Fab 1 was still under construction, Shi realized that the accelerating rate of competition in the LCD industry necessitated bold investment decisions, so he approved the construction of Fab 2, a Gen 4 facility. By this time, Ho and Wu had become convinced that the key to the market was going to be flat-panel televisions, which meant larger panel sizes than were used in notebook computers and computer monitors. At that time, Fujitsu VLSI was developing an experimental technology called one-drop fill, in which many, many micropipette dispensers would each place a single drop of liquid crystal material between the two pieces of glass before they were sandwiched. CMO had sent a senior R&D team to evaluate the ODF equipment. Implementing a completely new technology like this in production entailed enormous risks. Ultimately, CMO made the decision to make it work and CMO not only became an industry pioneer in suing ODF but also filed many ODF-related patents. 3. Why did CMO vertically integrate? Was this a sound move? Though Chi Mei had originally intended to make only color filters, it had quickly moved into making the TFT-LCD sandwich. From 2003 to 2004 alone, as many as 15 Gen 5 fabs came onstream across Asia, driving finished panel pricing down. In the early part of the decade, display drivers could make up 15%to 20% of the overall production cost of an LCD display. CMO relied exclusively on Texas Instruments for it supply. Strategically, CMO management felt that to be successful over the longer term, the IC design team needed to have exposure to a more balanced customer portfolio, instead of supplying CMO exclusively. Therefore, management decided to spin off the team into a separate entity, Himax, so that it could engage other customers without conflict. CMO was able to move into photomasks, polarizer films, and many other key components by simply leveraging its expertise in chemical manufacturing. With the Himax model as a successful first step in upstream  integration, over the years CMO formed a web of tightly linked subsidiaries across its supply chain. These efforts at vertical integration helped alleviate some of the concerns about the availability of critical components. All these efforts made CMO one of the most vertically integrated of Taiwan’s TFT-LCD manufacturers. CMO created an environment that people come to them, whether internally or externally. 4. How did CMO’s leadership and culture impact the company’s performance? Shi espoused three credos as his guiding principles: (1) business was a way to pursue fulfillment, (2) people-oriented management was important, and (3) harmonious relationships were valuable. These credos set a very powerful tone within the company. A highly decentralized decision-making model enhanced this management philosophy. This made the company a very attractive place to work, allowing it to draw personnel from many quarters of Taiwanese industry when new initiatives were launched. One of the strengths of Chi Mei’s culture is the entrepreneurship and flexibility. The power to attract talent would later turn out to be a key enabler, as the company expanded into areas that required specialized technical expertise. Chi Mei didn’t lure people away from other companies; it just built a good environment and set up â€Å"stages† for people to develop businesses. In fact, all CMO did was build a good environment and everything else followed.