Monday, September 30, 2019
The Securities and Exchange Commission was created in 1934 to police the U. S. financial markets. Today, the Securities and Exchange Commission continues to create legislation tightening reporting standards and providing more transparency. Unfortunately, increasing standards often comes after a failure of the system. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a primary example of legislation following financial market failure. Sarbanes-Oxley influenced public businesses through transformation of the financial system. The July 2002 enactment of the Sarbanes Oxley Act, co-authored by U. S. Sen. Paul Sarbanes of Maryland and U.Ã S. Rep. Michael Oxley of Ohio, followed a series of large public company failures that included Enron, Tyco and WorldCom. Sarbanes-Oxley addressed investor confidence and fraud through reform of the public company reporting standards. However, much damage in the market occurred with the collapse of several major companies between 2002 and 2004. (smallbusiness. chron. com). The impact of unethical behavior is known by many companies, and have done damage to individuals, and businesses as well. The results of unethical behavior on a large scale would be the Enron, Tyco, and Global Crossing, or WorldCom. Greediness led to accounting unethical promises, and with that certain individuals became the ones who had told on their companies. Falsifying financial reports is dishonest and unethical because the financial records are supposed to show financial results of a business, and how it is growing. When accountants or managers lie about the revenue and cash flow it misleads prospective investors, stockholders, employees, and the U. S. government. So many billions of dollars have been hidden in the paperwork, and financial statements. If I had found inconsistencies in the financial statements where I worked I would have to go through the chain of command to let them know of what I have found and if there was nothing done then I would then think about going outside to tell someone so I could cover myself. Unethical behavior led to the end of Enron, and the other companies, and to financial issues for many individuals all over the United States. As a result of the unethical behavior of several companies there is now the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. All companies, must comply with the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act set guidelines for ethical accounting practices.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Compare McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory X and Theory Y style of leadership and consider the types of organizations in which each style of leadership might be most appropriate. Douglas McGregor devised his concept of Theory X and Theory Y in the USA in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s using a survey of managers, which he then proposed in his book, Ã¢â¬ËThe Human Side of EnterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢ in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. Theory X states that a manager distrusts his subordinates, believes they donÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy work and therefore must be controlled.Theory Y, on the other hand, speculates that a manager believes their employees enjoy work and wish to contribute, the manager is therefore more likely to include them in the decision making process and employ a more democratic style of leadership (Marcousse 2003). The two theories are not opposite ends of one spectrum, but rather two separate lines of continuum that describes the attitude and perception a manager has of their employees. The type of motivation that the e mployees receive from their manager is down to their management style.These Theories match up with MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËHierarchy of NeedsÃ¢â¬â¢. McGregor makes the point that the way in which a manager runs and controls his team has massive impacts on the happiness in employees, relating to esteem and self actualisation. These are two factors of motivation mentioned by Maslow in his theory. In comparing these two theories, X and Y, we must take into account different factors that may affect the two ideas and how they may do so in different scenarios or places of work.The general idea is that Theory Y is the path of the Ã¢â¬Å"enlightened managerÃ¢â¬ (Chapman 1995) who runs a democratic form of leadership, and that it receives better results than theory X, whose manager employs more of an autocratic dictatorship. However this cannot always be believed. In different cases a manager may do better in his work to tell employees the best and most effective way to complete a task, knowing through experience. FW Taylor (1856-1917) believed in efficiency and complete control of a task provided to the manager.This idea related to such methods as the assembly line, a process broken down into simple tasks and completed individually by a group of workers along a line. Employed by such companies as Ford in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, in producing cars, this method gave great results, however keeping workers motivated was difficult, part of TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s method was to Ã¢â¬Å"devise a pay scheme to reward those who complete or beat tough output targets, but penalize those who cannot, or will not, achieve the productivity Taylor believed was possible. (pg 218) For the manager, Theory X is a self Ã¢â¬â fulfilling method, the workers are likely to develop a lack in interest in their work and do it solely for the wage (Marcousse 2003). There are two scenarios in which Theory X can escape a degree of criticism for producing a lack of motivation from its workers(Marcousse 2003). The part time worker has partially already given in to the idea that they will not be receiving much independence and delegation of responsibility.This is due to the amount of time they have committed to their work. For example, a part time security guard might be asked to stand guard on a gate for an hour every morning to let personnel through, however once they have completed this task they are unlikely to achieve much more than changing the channel on their TV. The job simply requires a pair of eyes at one point in the morning, and the rest of the time they are simply on call.There is no enjoyment or form of learning with this job; the part time worker is simply there to take home some money at the end of the month, satisfying his basic needs for financial security, a mutual understanding between employer and employee. A large majority of the time there is little for the security guard to watch over. When something does arise that requires more attention, someone of highe r authority is only a phone call away.In this, theory X is the logical management style, as to use theory Y would mean a greater chance of mistakes being made by someone who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the same experience and qualifications as the elected official. The other scenario is in a moment of chaos (Marcousse 2003). At this point, due to the limited time scale in such moments, someone needs to take full control and make quick decisive decisions. Such a case is easily understood when put into the confines of an army unit under fire.Someone must give direct orders to keep the enemy under pressure and move their men to safety, or face either death or capture. Theory Y would consume too much time to listen to all possible ideas and make a decision, with young men who have been trained to take orders rather than come up with them. Efficiency is the key in this scenario, Taylor would be completely right in giving total control to a senior soldier to try and ensure the safety of his soldi ers. Encouraging an employee to work for a great amount of time during the week or without the threat of danger
Saturday, September 28, 2019
I Died for Beauty, but was Scarce Emily Dickinson I died for Beauty Ã¢â¬â but was scarce Adjusted in the Tomb When One who died for Truth, was lain In an adjoining room Ã¢â¬â He questioned softly Ã¢â¬Å"Why I failedÃ¢â¬ ? Ã¢â¬Å"For BeautyÃ¢â¬ , I replied Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"And I Ã¢â¬â for Truth Ã¢â¬â Themself are One Ã¢â¬â We Brethren, areÃ¢â¬ , He said Ã¢â¬â And so, as Kinsmen, met a Night Ã¢â¬â We talked between the Rooms Ã¢â¬â Until the Moss had reached our lips Ã¢â¬â And covered up Ã¢â¬â our names Ã¢â¬â Emily Dickerson's poetry often has similar discussion points (Paton). In a few of her poems, such as Ã¢â¬Å"I Died For Beauty,Ã¢â¬ she discusses death. However, while death would normally be considered a negative subject, she tends to take it from a different perspective (Chad). In her poem Ã¢â¬Å"I Died for BeautyÃ¢â¬ Emily Dickerson discusses how beauty and truth are one. The message that she gives the readers is that by being true to who you are, and dying with your values intact, you have lived a full life (Paton). When Emily Dickenson writes; Ã¢â¬Å"Adjusted in the Tomb When One who died for Truth, was lain In an adjoining room Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å" This gives sight to the reader understanding the speaker hardly had time to adjust to her tomb before a man was laid in another tomb right next to hersÃ¢â¬â¢. However the word Ã¢â¬Å"TombÃ¢â¬ , gives the poem an effect that makes it feel more cold, dark and even alone (Ulynie). This word is also given more emphasis on because the first letter is capitalized, even though it happens to be the last word in the line. When Dickinson writes; Ã¢â¬Å"He questioned softly Ã¢â¬Å"Why I failedÃ¢â¬ ? Ã¢â¬ we can tell that the man asked the speaker why she died, she replied Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ For BeautyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ the reader then finds out that the man claims to have died for trust and he states that trust and beauty are the same thing, and in turn stating the they are both Ã¢â¬Å"BrethrenÃ¢â¬ . DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s usage of term Ã¢â¬Å"BrethrenÃ¢â¬ makes the reader suggest that their relationship is much stronger (Apran) than just an acquaintance and that they are both apart of or a m ember of this one this, which is death. However their companionship strengthens and we can now see this with the uses of the simile Ã¢â¬Å"And so, as Kinsmen met a Night, We talked between the Rooms,Ã¢â¬ which shows how the walls between their tombs is no obstacle for their communication. Also in the excerpt Ã¢â¬Å"Until the Moss had reached our lips Ã¢â¬â And covered up Ã¢â¬â our names Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å", which acts as an metaphor, suggests that the connection between the two are so strong that the loss of their speech and identity (symbolized by the moss covering up their names) through death, holds no barrier between them (Simran), as they are now deemed as one through their similar situations. This poem follows many of DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s typical formal patternsÃ¢â¬âthe ABCB rhyme scheme, the rhythmic use of the dash to interrupt the flow helps to promote this rhythm and give way some rhymes (Chad). For example notice how some lines such as Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢For BeautyÃ¢â¬â¢, I replied Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËAnd I Ã¢â¬â for truthÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ has a certain rhythm to it which is emphasized with the use of dashes. Whereas words such as Ã¢â¬Å"TombÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"RoomÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"BrethrenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"KinsmenÃ¢â¬ rhyme together and are also capitalized giving more focus to it in order to show its significance and importance. All of this adds in giving the poem its effect that even though it may seem a bit dark and gloomy there is also so a sense of acceptance and belonging.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Addiction of Second Life Online Game - Essay Example They can as well chip in to the world around them, forming buildings and a number of other things, even simulations. Resident inclusions to the virtual world are known as user produced content, and this content is among the aspects that makes Second Life only one of its kind online setting, and have a huge number of users who are badly addicted to this game. For those who play Second Life, this is a game that is a lot more than just an ordinary game. For the players, it is an online word where they can have a chance to get a fresh start as well as a new Ã¢â¬Å"lease of lifeÃ¢â¬ (Kim et al, 2008, p. 214); and when people have a chance to make a fresh start thing, it can become somewhat hard not to get overly-involved in it. Each day, more and more people joining the Second Life and spending the most of their time within this virtual world. Whereas more or less everyone states that they play the game only for enjoyment, for the greater part of them, this is Ã¢â¬Å"more than just a g ameÃ¢â¬ (Kim et al, 2008, p. 215). Second Life utilizes the Ã¢â¬Å"Havok 1 physics engineÃ¢â¬ (Boulos et al, 2007, p. 236). This software creates actual physics inside a virtual setting. The physics engine decides the way avatars act inside the virtual world, together with crash recognition - the engine informs the software how the each item should respond as soon as they get are in touch, automobile activities and what simulations seem to be. The more refined the physics engine, the more realistic animations utilizing it will be.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Contemportary Developments in Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
Contemportary Developments in Management - Essay Example This essay stresses that the high technology firms like Microsoft, Dell, Cisco, PeopleSoft, Oracle, Accenture, Ernst & Young and IBM, were under pressure to reduce costs. In the beginning of the 21st century the labor market was relatively poor. The business success of the large and medium corporations in the US is largely dependent on the consumer. Thus because of poor labor market, there was a downturn in the stock market. Investor sentiments were low and firms experienced reduction in trading volume. This affected the demand for computers and ultimately put pressure on the high technology companies to reduce costs. This is how offshoring increased during this period which was considered to be exporting good American jobs to low-wage nations. This paper discusses that the protectionists in the US allege that job losses are inevitable. The US high-technology industry is increasingly reliant on sub-contracted, non-unionized and illegal labor as well as exploitation of cheap labor in third world countries. The authors allege that the industry is centered on profit maximization with little or no concern for the nation. Based on various theories and business models, studies suggest that offshore outsourcing is preferred to domestic outsourcing or vertical integration of the firm. Global integration provides further reasons for outsourcing like thicker markets due to combining of economies.
Philosophy quizes - Assignment Example The need for self-realization is the reason behind birth, thus the need for a chariot, which is the earthly body. Once one's desires are fulfilled and begins to love nothing else but the Ã¢â¬Å"SelfÃ¢â¬ , one reaches the state of Nirvana, making rebirth unnecessary. 3. In Ã¢â¬Å"Questions of King Milinda,Ã¢â¬ monk Nagasena discusses the state of non-self --- that there is no inherent and permanent essence to the self --- which is in contrast with the Katha Upanishad belief that there is a Ã¢â¬Å"self.Ã¢â¬ Thus, there is no essence of a chariot. Nagasena compares the chariot to humans, and follows it with a discussion on how the chariot consists of several parts, each one important on the supposed essence of the chariot. However, since each part is without permanence, each ever-changing, the essence therefore does not exist. 4. Void must be added to the concept of movement. According to Lucretius, the composition of things are not kept close together. There is some void within things that allows movement. He argues that without empty space or vacuum, movement would not be possible. If there is no empty space, every movement would disturb the other things occupying the universe. 5. Descartes argues that there is a mind-body dualism, making it possible for the mind to exist without the body, and the body to exist without the mind. ... And since substance, as Hylas presents it, depends on sensible qualities of things as well, it would have the same absurd layers of substratum underneath it up to infinity. Hylas concludes that he is already confused too as to what conceiving material substance means. 7. The problem Philonous presents about things existing without anyone perceiving them is that if things are to be perceived for them to exist, then the trees in the Quad would not exist at hours when no one perceives them. 8. Ideas are there due to impressions, and Hume states that there is no Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ because one cannot find a solid impression of the Ã¢â¬Å"self.Ã¢â¬ He answers to objections thrown at him by stating the limits of human knowledge. He states that his philosophy is intended to discover things that are presented to the senses. Furthermore, he states that no good would come out from excessive skepticism. SS.R 13-15 9. Ryle states that Descartes face some motives that do not go along well toget her. First, Descartes, along with other philosophers, states that mental words are different from physical ones, and that they do not refer to physical processes, but rather of non-physical ones. However, Ryle argues that in describing the mental, Descartes still uses words that talk about the physical, which Ryle states is an incorrect usage of grammar mechanics. Ryle maintains that in talking about the mental, words such as Ã¢â¬Å"effect,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"process,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"thing,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"change,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"stuff,Ã¢â¬ etc. should not be utilized since they pertain to physical things. In reading Descartes, one could see that he arrives at the mind by presenting how it is not like the
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Criminal Justice Capstone - Research Proposal Example This paper explores gun violence, the triggers and ways to curb it. Gun violence is a problem that can be traced to the advent of guns. But unlike ancient aggressive actions of individuals, violence in the current era of sophisticated guns has been more serious and damaging to the victims and the society in general. The influx of firearms in Arkansas has served to offer a more sincere means of threats as well as a faster medium of taking out human life. The initial interaction American society had with guns in the mid-nineteenth century was exceptionally lacklustre (Hogeboom, 2000). The extension of the acquisition of guns to civilians created the unintended result of an effective means of death, especially in states with poor anti-gun laws like Arkansas. The slacken rules of owning a gun without proper license in the state has led to rampant cases of murder in the state (Devi, 2012). The intense measures of violence associated with guns over the years have prompted various actions to be taken in order to minimize the injurious situations that have occurred and continue occurring in the state. Other states, however, have implemented laws that offer exceptionally punitive penalties for unlawful possession of a gun. Task forces that seek to limit the amount of illegal weapons available within the public have also sprouted in the state, but with little if any achievements made so far (Stell, 2004). In light of this, researchers have proposed that further action in the form of tighter legislation should be enacted to limit cases of gun violence in Arkansas (Lot, 2013). However, a major source of contention stems from the Second Amendment, which legalizes gun ownership for security and sporting events (Faria, 2012). This paper explores th e issue of gun violence in Arkansas and proposes strategies that if implemented would curb the problem. The grave issue of gun violence in Arkansas
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Morbibity and mortality by race in US by agesexand location - Essay Example The report from CDC presented detailed 2005 data on deaths and death rates according to a number of social, demographic, and medical characteristics. The data provided information on mortality patterns among residents of the United States by such variables as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, marital status, educational attainment, injury at work, state of residence, and cause of death. Information on these mortality patterns is important for understanding changes in the health and well-being of the U.S. population Mortality data in their report can be used to monitor and evaluate the health status of the Nation in terms of current mortality levels and long-term mortality trends, as well as to identify segments of the U.S. population at greater risk of death from specific diseases and injuries. Differences in death rates among various demographic subpopulations, including race and ethnic groups, may reflect subpopulation differences in factors such as socioeconomic status, access to medical care, and the prevalence of specific risk factors of a particular subpopulation. Based on the statistics as of 2005, there were 2,448,017 deaths were reported in the United States according to the death certificates state agencies received and filed. Life expectancy at birth remained the same as in 2004- 77.8 years. Age-specific death rates decreased fo
Monday, September 23, 2019
Comparison between Windows XP & the Linux operating system - Essay Example The world has been witnessing a revolution ever since the introduction of the windows operating system. This has been primarily due to the easy-to-use interface as also the user-friendly controls that it is equipped with. But, the advent of the 90s has seen the rise of another major operating system that was developed on a UNIX foundation. Linux, as this operating system is popularly known is a freely available version under the open source initiative. It was and continues to be a hit with hardcore software developers. Therefore, the present era is seeing a tug-of-war between the vendor-based Windows XP (the newest version of windows) and the Linux (open source) operating systems As such, the windows vs. Linux debate are a heated topic for discussion under the OS (operating systems) domain. As far as the current paper is concerned, the main aspects that will be discussed as part of the discussion include the following:The basic difference between Windows XP & Linux when it comes to t he issue of synchronization lies in the manner in which the different processes are related to the underlying kernel. 'Synchronization' is a term that is more often associated with an environment that comprises the execution of more than a single process concurrently. Under such situations, synchronization ensures that all the processes execute concurrently such that there is a sense of coordination between them for the purpose of getting a task to execute in perfect run-time order so as to prevent undesirable race conditions from occurring (A. Silberschatz, 2006). When it comes to the Linux operating system, there is a process scheduler that controls access to the processor. Therefore, the scheduler is assigned the task of governing the state of execution of the various processes present. The scheduler uses a set of timers to determine the various durations such as the amount of time that is supposed to be allocated to a particular process, the time for bringing out a process out o f the execution or waiting state etc. this governs the monitoring of the system for any occurrence of deadlocks that can be duly eliminated through efficient mechanisms (Gordon Fischer, Claudia Salzberg Rodriguez, Claudia Salzberg, Steven Smolski, 2005). As opposed to this, the various processes under Windows XP are directly attached to the kernel. This requires that the kernel (and thereby the scheduler as well) must keep track of all the various processes that are attached to the kernel, though they may not be in use. This increases the chances of a deadlock & in many cases there are serious aberrations in terms of proper execution sequence between the various processes that are connected to a particular task. This is the usual occurrence when one tries to open too many applications on a windows machine wherein the system fails to respond beyond a certain limit (system hang). Linux has been found to offer better performance in this regard, wherein a system hang-up occurs only when the system hardware can no longer maintain the pace. Process Management This is related to the synchronization problem in the sense that the discussion mainly revolves around the process. The process management deals with two aspects in particular. According to A. Tanenbaum (2001), the first case is the allocation of execution sate to various processes & the other one is the allocation of memory space to the programs (processes). While the first one is mainly concerned about deadlocks, the second one is aimed at the minimizing the time required to fetch a process from the memory to the waiting queue for the purpose of putting it under consideration for execution. Under Linux, very process is assigned a unique process number that is used to reference the particular process under all circumstances, be it to create child processes, execute it or for killing that particular
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Strict liability and mens rea Essay So the offences of strict liability, we can say, are those crimes which do not require mens rea with regard to at least one or more elements of the actus reus. In R Vs Storkwain (9) the defendant supplied drugs for which a prescription was required, after being handed a forged prescription. There was no evidence of any negligence or wrong doing on the part of the pharmacist.. On appeal against conviction, it was held that the statute created an offence of strict liability; therefore no proof of mens rea was required. In Gammon (Hong Kong) Ltd vs Attorney-General for Hong Kong (10) following points has been laid down to determine the circumstances to which strict liability to be imposed. (1) There is a presumption of law that mens rea is required before a person can be held guilty of a criminal offence; 8. Phillips v. Cricket Lighters, 841 A. 2d 1000 (Pa. 2003) 9. R Vs Storkwain (1986) 10. Gammon (Hong Kong) Ltd v Attorney-General for Hong Kong  2 All ER 503 Strict Liability 7 (2) The presumption is particularly strong where the offence is Ã¢â¬Å"truly criminalÃ¢â¬ in character; (3) The presumption applies to statutory offences, and can be displaced only if this is clearly or by necessary implication the effect of the statute; (4) The only situation in which the presumption can be displaced is where the statute is concerned with an issue of social concern; (5) Even where a statute is concerned with such an issue, the presumption of mens rea stands unless it can be shown that the creation of strict liability will be effective to promote the objects of the statute by encouraging greater vigilance to prevent the commission of the prohibited act. Essentials of strict liability For the application of this rule the following three essentials should be there: 1) Injury by a defective product: In order to succeed the strict liability under the law the plaintiff must show that the injury must be caused by a defective product whose defect existed at the time of injury and the product should be plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s control. In the recent case of Ceiba-Geigy (Pty) Ltd v Lushof Farms (Pty) Ltd en n Ander (11) it was held that the liability arising from the defective products not only related to the personal injury but financial loss also. It was further confirmed that when a manufacture undertakes or market the production without any prior tests and 11. Ceiba-Geigy (Pty) Ltd v Lushof Farms (Pty) Ltd en n Ander, 2002 (2) SA 447 (SCA) Strict Liability 8 consequently it turns hazardous to the consumer such negligent activities expose a liability to the consumer. Here a contractual nexus between the manufacturer and the consumer is not required. (Weir, Tony 2006), (12) 2) The goods must be dangerous or defective in nature: Here the plaintiff must show that due to the dangerous nature, such goods can not be used for the ordinary purpose or for some other reasonably foreseeable purpose. Thus, a manufacturer owes a duty to supply a product fit for the ordinary purposes and it is to be used and safe notwithstanding a reasonably foreseeable misuse that could cause injury. The decisions in famous cases like Batcheller Vs Tunbrige Wells Gas co. ,(13) National Telephone Co. Vs Baker (14)and West Vs Bristol Tramways Co. (15)manifests that the defective products are whatever in form ,whether it is gas, electricity noxious fumes ,the rule of strict liability can be applied. 3) The goods should leave the manufacturer: It is essential that the thing caused injury to the plaintiff must leave from the possession and control of eth defendant. So those defective goods are still with the manufacture is safe from the claim of compensation. In Read Vs Lyons (16) (text) the plaintiff was the employee in the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s munitions factory. While performing her duty a shell was exploded and she was injured . Even -12. Weir,Tony,( 2006),an introduction to Tort law,2nd edn. , Oxford University Press 13. Batcheller Vs Tunbrige Wells Gas co. 84 L. T 765 14. National Telephone Co. Vs Baker (1893) 2 ch 186 15. West Vs Bristol Tramways Co. (1908) 2 K. B 14 16. Read Vs Lyons (1947) A. C 156, 161 Strict Liability 9 though the shell exploded was dangerous in nature it was held that defendants were not liable as the shell was not left from outside the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s premises and the rule of strict liability could not be applied in this case. 4) Breach of warranty: Generally, the law imposes certain warranties (or guaranties) on the sale of products. Such warranties include that the goods are in proper condition for use and free of defects and that they are fit for a particular purpose. Since the court doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t disregard the liability of the waivers against the policy and the warranties are limited, the manufacturers and retailers are always held responsible for injuries from the defective and dangerous products. The aspect of breach of warrenty enables the plaintiff to act against the defendant with his complete freedom. Here he need not assert that the defendant is fault. Usually the product claims under the breach of warranty are in quasi contractual nature. Any factual statement or promise about the product ,a description of the product made ,any sample or model provided constitutes the warranty upon which the buyer rely to purchase the goods. ( Faegre Benson,. 2003)(17).
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Sociology of Food in USA Sociology of food in USA INTRODUCTION Man and food have close association with one another and this association has also compelled the man to find new means and new forms of food, to bring diversity and sustainability in their food chain. Initially the food was only grown like vegetables and fruits or was got, in the form of meat, of hunting animals. With the progress in civilization and the technology, all phenomenon of production, distribution and consumption changed and with this change raised the issue like health, ethical, environmental, labor and the cultural. When these issues came into focus, the whole scenario brought the field of sociology of food. This field helps to study how the food is currently produced, then goes to the line of distribution and how the people around the country or the world consume it. Along with all other factors, this whole process of food chain also has the social impact and this impact can affect the society in a number of ways. Here, we will discuss the sociology of food in USA and h ow it is creating social problems. OBJECTIVE PRESENTATION OF THE SOCIAL CONDITION In the countries like America, it is not an ancient thought that food used to be cooked at home and was considered as the item that connects the family together and helps them to sit together and interact with each other. It was once the preference that food should be prepared at home and the preparation of food itself required a lot of fresh ingredients and specially loves. After the industrial revolution, along with other concepts, the idea of food as the bonding force also changed. Industrial revolution not only increased the speed of progress in science and technology, but also, altered the pace of life. Industrial revolution also gave the opportunity to work, therefore, most of the members of the family started working. People became busy in earning money and cooking meals at home became difficult for the people and as a result the food industry progressed to an extent that it has taken the place in every home of United States. Food production, distribution and consumption have become one of the biggest industries not only in United States, but, all over the world. SUBJECTIVE PRESENTATION OF WHY THE SOCIAL CONDITION IS A SOCIAL PROBLEM Although we are now living in the society which revolves around becoming self-sufficient and economically stable, therefore, people have to spend more time at workplaces, thus, decreasing the time people used to spend their time. Most of that time was centered on making and feeding family members. The abundance of readymade food including: fast food drinks and junk food provided a lot of solutions for the people. Food is an important source to create connections and it is considered that cooking and serving proper meals reestablishes and reinforces the bond between different members of the family and helps them to send time with one another (Debevec and Tivadar). Taking, cooking of food out of our daily lives is causing a lot of social issues, that dominating our way of living and relationships. Food Production Five decades back, the production of food had never been an issue. Countries usually depended on their own main crops to meet the needs of their population, but, with the passes of time, transportation, technology, wealth and prosperity of some countries gave those changes to get more and better food for their population. One example is that Asian countries are acquiring land in African countries. This method of production, in foreign countries is to meet the increasing need of the Asian countries to fulfill the demand of the food, due to increase in population in urban areas. This will not only create social issue for the people of African countries, but, also in the countries this food is consumed because the excessive export of the crops of African countries will put pressure on the society because people will not be able to benefit from their own land, thus creating social distress. Also, the people in Asian countries, who will be consuming those products, will have to pay more f or it due to increase in cost due to transportation. Thus, a social divide will occur because people of middle and lower classes will have to pay more, even beyond their means, to get the articles of basic need (Gunasekera and Finnigan). Secondly, with the advancement of technology, transgenic technology is used to genetically modified crops or the improved crops. This technology is used all over the world, but, still there are societies which consider them against their beliefs and system. There are societies who collectively thing that producing food by introducing foreign agent into the original form might have negative impact on the health of the people and the originality of the crops. People believe that since all the crops grown naturally are the best form of the food and it is not for the benefit of society to genetically enhance the food and increase production, which might compromise the health of the people, which will ultimately reflect on society (Akumo and Riedel). Thi rdly, sustainability has also become an important issue in food production. With increase in population, demand of dietary products and meat has increased and in order to meet the needs several scientific methods are used. Eight hundred million people in the world are suffering from malnutrition, whereas, nearly four hundred million people are obese. The increase in prosperity and population has increased the demand of these products, but, in order to raise more meat giving animals, more water and food for them is needed. This causes an imbalance in the environment because there is already sacristy of the water and the food of these animals need to grow and this excessive requirement compels humans to use unnatural ways to grow food and even increase the speed of growth of animals. Demand of these food items has increased, but, so does their price and the prices of these products are getting out of reach of common people, especially in underdeveloped countries. This also crease soci al imbalance and the working class again has to suffer due to lack of finances. (Reisch and Eberle) Food Distribution Food distributions systems work as the network and distribute food products all over the country. The supply of food actually depends on the demand of the product in a certain area, but, certain food items are produced that may be demanded in different markets comprising of variety of social classes and this different in social status may also affect the availability of the product. The availability of these products is also dependent on the purchasing power of the customer. There the distribution is also affected by this, thus making these products unavailable to the lower class (FAO). The main issue associated with the distribution systems is that there are very less number of markets that sell their products locally. Since, these products are sent to other towns and cities, thus increasing the price of the product. The excessive spending on distribution and the money spent on advertising is received from the consumer, which again impacts the working class of the society (Martinez, Hand and Pra). The people who used to come at the churches pantry to get food have increased three times since 2008. But, the amount of food that was distributed to these services has decreased due to decrease in budget. Thus this uneven supply of food to these church services have put the pressure to the churches to feed the peed that are deserving and are dependent on them. Uneven distribution of food and makes people unable to purchase their own food (Greenberg, Greenberg and Mazza). Food Consumption The consumption of the food is greatly influenced by the income of the consumer. The families that have better income spend a lot of money on food and especially on fancy and expensive food items. Therefore, a social divide is also created and the food items are produced which can only be consumed by the people who are financially stable (Jappelli and Pistaferri). Due to busy lifestyles the eating out and consuming readymade food is increasing rapidly in the country. Although, research show that the food that is made and eaten at home has good health and social effects. At the dinner table, family get the chance to interact with each other, develop better relationship and come to know about lives of one another, thus creating better family bond and increasing harmony in the society (Eisenberg, Olson and Neumark-Sztainer). Since the people consume a lot of food outside, therefore, their choice of food is also affected by the people around them. People who eat at the public places usua lly eat unhealthy and fatty food and most of the times they spend more money, than their average spending, this results in compromised health and finances. The obese and financially unstable people further affects the balance of the society (Mcferran, Dahl and Fitzsimons). SOCIAL CHANGE Food production industry has changed its shaped since last eight decades and now everything that was considered the specialty of home foods come in packing. Income has increased the demand for expensive food items and the food market has become global. All these factors are affecting the society because transportation from far off places makes, even the most common things expensive, thus making it expensive for major portion of society. This problem can be reduced by introduced more local markets and by promoting local products. Moreover, alternative products to protein like second level protein should be encouraged and produced, to meet the needs of the people. Pulses can also serve as the alternative source for protein; therefore, producing this item can help in achieving sustainability in food chain. Food distribution has always been the issue all over the world, but, now we come to see even the global distribution of food. Now even the food of Sydney can reach any part of the world. Still there are countries that are facing uneven distribution of food resulting on malnutrition. Uneven distribution is also due to the uneven incomes of different segments of the society. Also different markets have different prices of same item and even. This problem can be solved by introducing centralized distribution system and centralized pricing. These systems can even help the working class to afford all things and everything can become available to everyone, irrespective of the social class. Also, this centralized system will be helpful in ensuring that every member of the society is equally treaty and has access to everything he needs. The consumption of food can only be controlled by the consumer. The most important should be the heath of the customer, for which customer should take balanced diet and this diet could help to give better and healthy people to the society. People should also, consider the effect of decrease in family meal on their social and family life.. There should be balance in work and family life and the increase in social distress can be caused if this balance is disturbed. Although, it is easier and simpler to get the food from restaurants, but, restaurants cannot compensate for the love of the family and communication with family members. Also, most of the times, the food consumed outside is unhealthy and unhygienic, that can result in a health issue, will demand money for seeing a physician and will put extra pressure on the finances. The government should also conduct awareness programs about the importance of meals made at home and the significance of balanced diet. CONCLUSION Sociology of food is an important topic and sociology of food in USA is also. Three different aspects of food chain: production, distribution and consumption. There are a number of social issues in all three aspects and the most prominent ones are due to uneven income of different segments of the society. So, in order to meet the most common needs of all the people, it is important to have if not centralized then controlled system that can ensure that all markets have same price. Moreover, the consumption of the food should also be according to the needs of the body and excessive or unbalanced. A lot work has to be done to the sociology of food in United States in all three areas i..e production, distribution and consumption. Works Cited Akumo, Divine Nkonyam and Heidi Riedel. Social and Economic Issues Ã¢â¬â Genetically Modified Food. Muzzalupo, Innocenzo. Food Industry. InTech, 2013. 221-229. Debevec, Liza and Blanka Tivadar. Making connections through foodways:contemporary issues in anthropological and sociological studies of food. ANTHROPOLOGICAL NOTEBOOKS, 12 (1) (2006): 5Ã¢â¬â16. Eisenberg, M.E., et al. Correlations between family meals and psychosocial well-being among adolescents. The Archives of Pediatricsand Adolescent Medicine, 158 (2004): 792-796. FAO. Low-cost Urban Food Distribution Systems in Latin America. FAO Agricultural Services Bulltin, 111 (1994): 40-48. Greenberg, Michael, Gwendolyn Greenberg and Lauren Mazza. Food Pantries, Poverty, and Social Justice. American ournal of Public Health 100(11) (2010): 2021-2022. Gunasekera, Don and John Finnigan. Track social and economic impacts of food production. Naure, 466(920 (2010): 558-560. Jappelli, Tullio and Luigi Pistaferri. The Consumption Response to Income Changes. The Annual Review of Economics (2010): 476-506. Martinez, Steve, Michael Hand and Michelle Da Pra. Local Food Systems: Concepts, Impacts, and issues. Research. 2010. Mcferran, Brent, Darren W. Dahl and Gavan J. Fitzsimons. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll Have What SheÃ¢â¬â¢s Having: Effects of Social Influence and Body Type on the Food Choices of Others. Journal of Consumer Research,36(6) (2009): 915-959. Reisch, Lucia and Ulrike Eberle. Sustainable food consumption: an overview of contemporary issues and policies. Sustainability: Science, Practice, Policy, 9(2) (2013): 7-25.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Problem Statement Of Telecom Technologies The history of telephony took birth in 1876 when Graham Bell succeeded in making first ever voice transmission; then we observed 1st public cellular phone in 1946 and the introduction of the very first commercial mobile network in 1992. Weve been moving forward, making great discoveries all along, making innovations in different technologies, disciplines and life styles. 1992 was a start of the speech transmission now which stands as a perfect master piece of art and is ready to take a jump into the hyper connectivity. We have jumped into a BW hungry population which have ensued in overturning the technologies and the mobile telephony is no exception to that. Infact data requirement now explicates major revenue pours in any modern mobile network, so we are always hunting for methods to heighten and step-up the data rates. From the infancy mobile networks in 1992 grew to a developed network into the 2nd Generation then 2.5th Generation networks. Then we observed a transition from GSM technology to UMTS or WCDMA. That was called as 3rd Generation Technology. 1.2 Problem Statement Progression in telecom technologies has become an unavoidable phenomenon. Telecom markets are reshaping themselves into 3G networks. 3G UMTS/WCDMA licensing and spectrum auctioning has happened in all the major markets including the developing economies similar to Pakistan. There are almost over 405 million UMTS/WCDMA subscribers in 320 networks in over 130 countries. This number is growing at an exponential pace as more and more networks embrace this technology. However, Pakistan has unfortunately delayed the 3G licensing and spectrum auction now for over 3 years and is lagging behind in offering broadband and other consumer oriented EM (electronic mobile) applications such as health, education, commerce, video conferencing over its mobile networks. While, the importance of 3G licensing is a key aspect from the consumer point of view but an early adoption by the operators could have resulted in less capex and opex today since most of the sites especially in the larger cities are for providing excess Voice Data capacity which could have been avoided by deployment of 3G networks While, some of the operators are still resisting the 3G licensing but most of them have shown this resistance due to likely higher Spectrum Fee being envisaged by the Government for 3G. The Operators are of the view that the spectrum should be offered at cheaper tariff so that investment goes into infrastructure and not licensing. The other issue confronting the regulator and policy makers is whether to open up the process to new players or limit the auction to only the existing operators. To Identify and Analyse Impediments of 3rd Generation Telecommunication Technology to Develop Remedial Measures for its Early Deployment in Pakistan 1.3 Objectives of Thesis To study Mobile Wireless Technologies To Study and Analyze Market and Consumer Requirements for 3G To Study and Analyze the current Telecommunication Policies, Rules and Regulations with regards to the adoption and implementation of Technologies To identify Impediments (Issues and Challenges) in deployment 3G (Conclusions) To present Measures and Recommendations for early deployment of 3G in Pakistan 1.4 Significance of Research Due to consistent and unwavering growth patterns Pakistan Mobile Industry has achieved land mark of 100 million subscribers at the end of July 2010. In order to make the sector more efficient in utilizing the telecom resources, PTA has implemented the infrastructure sharing SOPs, which will not only make the operators more efficient but also would give them huge cost saving and reduce environmental hazards in the country. The much awaited 3G licensing is just around the corner, where all the necessary work has been completed and the Authority is waiting for a policy by the Government of Pakistan to initiate the licensing process. In continuation to its efforts PTA has been arranging seminars on 3G for creating awareness about the 3G services and to foresee and discuss the challenges that the industry may face with the introduction of 3G services. 3G is known as Third generation telecommunication technology as specified in the ITU standards. Unveiling of this technology has chipped in a new driving force to the mobile concepts. It now extends the user, a broad array of facilities. The most significant among them is the efficient use of the spectrum. Ameliorated efficiency in the system has bestowed upon the availability of broadband internet in the cellular phone. This remarkable invention has also made it possible to accomplish extended wireless telephony, broadband internet and video calls in the cell phone. Strictly speaking, the 3G technology has overturned the requirements to make it a complete, compact device by providing multifaceted applications. Using internet on the 3G phone has established a new attribute to the all-pervasive internet usage. The 3G technology has successfully attained faster service facilities. Development of a website or making a blog is now simpler then ever before. Desktops, due to its static nature have certain limitations. While mobile phone could accomplish the same result as its similitude, it was a good change for the consumers. Impact of this new technology in the cell phone sphere will be satisfying. Mobile phone industry is functioning in a superb competitive environment. By use of this technology, the user can browse internet and find an online dealer to purchase the products. Other fields that have profited from this technology are; online entertainment, messaging, news and security. 1.5 Limitations of the Research Though Officials of PTA were very accommodative and provided with the thorough and comprehensive information about upcoming 3G technology but all was an unofficial version moreover they were hesitant to provide with the definite PTA policy on the adoption of 3G. Due to rivalry and cutthroat competition among the Mobile Telecom Operators, access to their information regarding up gradation or operational readiness of 3G infrastructure was somewhat inaccessible. 1.6 Research Methodology 1.6.1 Phase 1 Initially Problem was identified, Despite having second highest teledensity, Pakistan is the only country left in the region to deploy 3G Technology 1.6.2 Phase 2 In the second phase it was compulsory to get to know about the 3G technology right from the scratch to learn its economics over the existing technologies. We studied the architecture of the mobile networks of all the technologies from 1G to 3G consulting the web (thanks to the web inventors), the published white papers and the Books on Wireless Technology. 1.6.3 Phase 3 In this phase we paid visits to PTA, FAB and the Mobile Operators, and were able to get unofficial version of their views regarding deployment of long awaited 3G technology in Pakistan. Moreover we pondered over the case studies of different countries who adopted 3G technology. Example in hand is India. 1.6.4 Phase 4 While studying the international trend towards 3G we made a compared the statistics of the market and consumers of Pakistan and more over had a look into the concerns of the regulatory body and the mobile operators. 1.6.5 Phase 5 We then analysed the situation and came up with certain issues / concerns of the government, the mobile operators and the consumers. A solution representing remedial measures have been highlighted, following which will address the issues and create a roadmap for early adoption of 3G technology as there is lot of potential for the operators as well the government to earn fortune. 1.7 Structure of the Thesis Introduction (Chapter-1) In this chapter Introduction and Background along with significance of research, limitations and methodology has been highlighted. Literature Review (Chapter-2) In this chapter Mobile Wireless Technologies including 3G have been thoroughly deliberated upon with an over view on technologies beyond 3G. Analysis and Discussions (Chapter-3-6) In these chapters Consumer Market and Regulations have been dwelled upon to find out the impediments delaying the adoption of 3G in Pakistan. Epilogue (Chapter-7-8) In these chapters we have put across recommendations to the Government and the Operators to address the issues highlighted and pave a smooth way to adoption of the next generation telecommunication technology.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Hamlet: A Man of Many Qualities Hamlet is a man of many different qualities and he reveals only certain qualities to certain people. Hamlet draws his audience, the reader, into noticing the different qualities that he has. His qualities are shown through his conversations with other characters as well as through his soliloquies. These words of wisdom and revealance help to distinguish how Hamlet feels about each other character that he encounters. The phrases and speeches that Hamlet addresses are both poetic and piercing. So when Hamlet is speaking, he is constantly revealing his qualities which range from love, to respect, to hate. Hamlet's most powerful qualities seem to be revealed through his conversation with the people that he cares about, namely his family and friends. The queen, Gertrude, is hamlet's mother and she is probably the living being that he cares about the most. Unfortunately, one of Hamlet's qualities, which is revealed in conversation with his mother, is a negative one and that is anger. His quality is displayed through Hamlet's soliloquy in Act 1, Scene 2, Lines 131Ã © 161. Hamlet is angry at his mother for marrying a new husband, his uncle, Claudius, so quickly after his father's death. This anger shines through in such phrases such as "Frailty, thy name is woman!"(Act 1,Sc 2, L148) and "Like Niobe, all tears."(Act 1, Sc 2, L151). At the end of his soliloquy, Hamlet switches qualities from one of anger to one of fear. This is evident when Hamlet states, "With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!", and "It is not, nor it cannot come to good", and finally "But break my heart, for I must hold my tongue"(Act 1, Sc 2 L157Ã © 161). Hamlet expresses his fear for his mother's hasty marriage. Hamlet realizes that his mother marrying his uncle can have no good result. Respect is another quality that Hamlet displays in conversation with his mother. This occurs when his mother asks him to remain at home rather than return to school(Act 1, Sc 2, L120Ã ©121), which he agrees to do. This shows that although he disagrees with his mother and her marriage, after such little mourning for her husband, Hamlet Sr.'s, death, he still respects his mother and will do what she asks. Later in the act, Hamlet encounters another character who goes by the name of Horatio. Horatio is a good friend, as stated in Act 1, Sc 2, L163, and the first quality which Hamlet reveals is his respect for Horatio. In line 176 of Act 1, Sc 2, Hamlet states "I know you are no truant.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Emotions can be classified, according to your personal experience, into three different categories: happiness, sadness, and anger. First of all, there is happiness. Happiness has no limits, for it can be felt at any time, any place and to any person. It cannot be hunted for; it is not obvious, but inscrutable. Happiness is realized by understanding one's self, which is completely a personal experience. For instance, a person may find happiness in one thing, whereas someone else may in another. Happiness is what we let it be, and even though carry the abilty to let ourselves be happy, we rarely do. The second catagory that emotions can be fall into is sadness. Why is the quest for happiness left us more vulnerable and sad? Are we a society of people who are all looking for happiness and disappinted with what we find? In most cases, sadness leaves us in a state of depression and unstableness. When you become sad you feel as though you hate life at the present time and in most instance s you cry, become depressed and feel like your sadness will be everlasting. If we were always happy and never expressed our sadness, it would eventually build up and one day we would just explode, and mabye go into a form of deep depression. The last but not least of the catagories of emotion is anger. Quick to rise, and even quicker to lash out, the simple emotion of anger has the power to destroy and create. Anger is not always a bad emotion. Without anger lives would be lost, tyranny would go unopposed, and inhumanities would be quietly accepted. Anger, the most powerful and feared emotion of the soul's repertoire, destroys and created in the same breath. Moving from one person to the next anger is an every present force in
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
There are some assumptions that the United States faces different economic Ã¢â¬Å"realityÃ¢â¬ than the rest of the world. The speech given by Governor R. S. Kroszner given on September 1, 2008 is about the United States in the International Financial System. He argued Ã¢â¬Å"against the decoupling hypothesisÃ¢â¬ and talked about the Ã¢â¬Å"two puzzles in the international financial accountsÃ¢â¬ of the United States. The situation with the housing slowdown in the United States in the summer of 2007 affected also European money markets. It became harder to sell the houses for their original prices. Ã¢â¬Å"Then turmoil emerged in financial systems around the world in the late summer of 2007. Ã¢â¬ The mortgages taken in the United States were backed with another loans like car loans or student loans and then reinvested again. A lot of foreign investors bought those securities that created difficulties in money markets in Europe. At the beginning of 2008, the financial system in the United States weakened the growth of gross domestic product and affected many emerging markets economies, reducing their growth and prospects for growth. Stock market declined sharply. The food and energy prices increased, and it created a concern of inflation. In other words, Governor wants to show that there is a connection between economies of different countries. It appears that a shock of one country is affecting the economy of many others. According to him, Ã¢â¬Å"the global economy remains closely connected by both trade and financial linkages. Ã¢â¬ He summed up in short that Ã¢â¬Å"one countryÃ¢â¬â¢s imports are anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s exports. Ã¢â¬ The weakness in one economy affects the demand for the imported products that are the stimulus for the economy of the other country which exports these products. Financial account which consists of purchases and sales of assets is a major account. Ã¢â¬Å"Global Financial linkages include not only the net international investment positions but also the sizes of gross cross-border claims and liabilities positions. Ã¢â¬ There are enormous investments made by US residents and by foreigners. According to Kroszner, Ã¢â¬Å"US liabilities to foreigners totaled more than $20 trillion, exceeding $140 percent of US GDP. US claims on foreigners totaled $17. 5 trillion, roughly 130 percent of US GDP. Ã¢â¬ This statistics reveled by the FED stuff, indicates that there is a financial linkage between the countries around the world. As a result, Ã¢â¬Å"more than two-third of U. S. liabilities are in the form of debt instruments, while half of U. S. claims are in equity securities and direct investment. Ã¢â¬ In other words, foreign investors find attractive U. S. markets because of many factors like the Rule of Law, social and political stability, the respect for private property, the uniform commercial code with the court system that can help to resolve disputes, the reliable open market, the safety and soundness of banking system, and finally the transparency in pricing of securities. The next point of the GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s speech is about two puzzles. There is an assumption that the United States has the unknown ways to have the higher returns on its investments. The U. S. residents have income of $90 billions more than the foreign investors on their investments in the United States. According to the governor, Ã¢â¬Å"the answer lies in the returns, composition, and size of U. S. claims and liabilities. The return received on U. S. direct investment claims on the rest of the world is much larger than paid by U. S. on its direct investment liabilities to the rest of the world or any other assets. Ã¢â¬ In short, direct investment appears to be a greater share of U. S. claims than it is of U. S. liabilities. Moreover, the United States is not the only country that has a positive net investment income. United Kingdom has also a larger difference in the rate of return on direct investment claims and liabilities comparing to other countries. This fact proves that the U. S. residents allocate their investments with a greater risk premium and make more physical investments in other countries. Kroszner suggested that difference of $90 billion can be partially explained also by favorable tax laws that Ã¢â¬Å"reduce their overall tax burdenÃ¢â¬ on their direct investments in other countries. Another puzzle was about the U. S. ability to borrow on better terms than the other countries do in order to finance their Ã¢â¬Ëexternal deficit. Ã¢â¬ The United States has huge account deficits over $3. 8 trillion. To finance the deficit U. S. needs to borrow abroad. According to the governor, Ã¢â¬Å"U. S. net liabilities increased by only $600 billion, which is $3. 2 trillion less than the cumulated current account deficits. About $2. 4 trillion of this amount is because of valuation adjustments (capital gains) favoring us claims. Ã¢â¬ The adjustments constantly occur because of the changes in asset prices and the U. S. currency which is considered to be the major medium of exchange on the market, about 66%. Besides the fact that the United States has the deficit since 1980s, the foreigners are still willing to invest in U. S. market. They can find it more attractive if the United States has the higher real interest. They observe such relative facts like the real sustainable economic growth, the relative inflation rates, and Purchasing Power Parity in the long-run exchange rates. They might also choose to invest in certain securities because of personal preferences and tastes. All these facts influence their decision making to invest in the U. S. market, but the key to resolve the second puzzle lies in differences in portfolio returns, composition, and size. Ã¢â¬Å"Most U. S. liabilities are debt securities, which realize small capital gains, while a large fraction of U. S. claims on the rest of the world are equity securities, which realize much larger capital gains. Ã¢â¬ In other words, the U. S. residents are taking more risk when invest in the new emerged markets while the foreign investors make safe decisions to invest in the U. S. securities with lower risk and lower return like U. S. bond and bills. Because of global trading and financial linkages, all the countries are bounded together.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Margaret Thatcher Rt. Hon. Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven L. G. , O. M. , F. R. S. Official booklet to mark the unveiling on 21st February 2007 of the bronze statue of Baroness Thatcher sculpted by Antony Dufort for the House of Commons. Edited by Malcolm Hay, Curator of Works of Art, Palace of Westminster. Clay for the portrait head of Margaret Thatcher, June 2005 (Photo: Antony Dufort) Ã¢â¬Å"This historic commission is a very fitting way to remember Margaret ThatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s time in the House of Commons and I am very pleased to welcome the statue joining those of the other Prime Ministers of the 20th Century in MembersÃ¢â¬â¢ Lobby. Rt. Hon. Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Commons Baroness Thatcher is the latest 20th Century Prime Minister to be represented in MembersÃ¢â¬â¢ Lobby immediately outside the House of Commons Debating Chamber. This over life-size bronze statue by Antony Dufort recognises her contribution to British politics during her three terms of office as premier and records her rightful place in parliamentary history as the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s first woman Prime Minister.Her statue looks towards the doors of the Commons Chamber, facing that of Sir Winston Churchill by Oscar Nemon, which since the late 1960s has stood sentinel to this historic Chamber, its foot touched in the early years for good luck by Tory Members before giving speeches in the Chamber and more recently by all those visiting the House. Since then, statues of David Lloyd George and Clement Attlee have been added to this historic space, together with busts of James Ramsay MacDonald, Harold Wilson, James Callaghan, Edward Heath, Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan, Stanley Baldwin and Alec Douglas-Home.Above and right Antony Dufort and Baroness Thatcher at the sitting on 28 May 2004 (Photos: Matthew Tugwell) The Parliamentary Art Collection of the House of Commons includes many painted and sculpted images of parliamentarians over the centuries, widely dispersed throu ghout the buildings of the Parliamentary Estate. Portraits of Prime Ministers line the Committee Corridor of the Victorian building, with more recent figures joining the HouseÃ¢â¬â¢s contemporary collection which is on display in Portcullis House.MembersÃ¢â¬â¢ Lobby was chosen to display sculptures of Prime Ministers of the 20th Century, because of its pre-eminence as the portal to the Debating Chamber, the centre of political life. Both interiors were rebuilt during the late 1940s by the architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott after the original Victorian Chamber and Lobby of the 1850s were destroyed by enemy action during the Second World War. Commissioning the Statue The bronze statue was commissioned from the sculptor Antony Dufort in 2003 by the SpeakerÃ¢â¬â¢s Advisory Committee on Works of Art, under the then chairmanship of Tony Banks MP It was . greed that Margaret Thatcher would be represented during her last term of office, 1987 Ã¢â¬â 1990, with the sculptor working fro m historic material as well as being given sittings from life. The current Chairman, and former Deputy Chairman, Hugo Swire MP and Members , of the Committee have overseen this project since 2005. Ã¢â¬Å"This is a very significant commission for the House of Commons. It is entirely appropriate that Margaret ThatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s premiership has been recorded in this way for future visitors to the House.I think the way in which Antony Dufort has succeeded in showing her mid-debate will strike a chord with all those Ã¢â¬â from all sides of the political divide who remember her oratory. I share Tony BanksÃ¢â¬â¢s view that history demanded this commission. I am only sad that he did not live to see the finished statue. Ã¢â¬ Hugo Swire MP Above Antony Dufort and Tony Banks MP after the committee meeting in Portcullis House where the preliminary design for the statue was selected The sculptor enlarges the full size clay of Baroness Thatcher from the half-size maquette, using a 3D Ã¢â¬ ËPantographÃ¢â¬â¢ (Photo: Antony Dufort)Upper torso of the completed full-size clay figure, 30 September 2006 (Photo: Antony Dufort) The Works of Art Committee is responsible for all aspects of the Parliamentary Art Collection, and follows an active policy of commissioning portraits in order to keep the Collection up to date. Efforts are also made to fill gaps in the historical collection where notable parliamentarians from the past are not represented. The management of the Collection is undertaken by a dedicated team of professional curators, led by Malcolm Hay, who support the Committee in their work.The Parliamentary Art Collection already includes a number of images of Margaret Thatcher. During the 1990s a marble statue was commissioned by the Committee from the sculptor Neil Simmons, but regrettably this was damaged shortly after completion, when the head was vandalised. It was successfully repaired and is on public view at the Guildhall Art Gallery in London. Other represe ntations of Margaret Thatcher within the Collection include portraits by Henry Mee and Ruskin Spear, one of the Spitting Image latex puppets by Fluck and Law, and a photograph by Jane Bown.Above Margaret ThatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s last speech in the House, 22 November 1990 (Parliamentary Copyright) Photograph of Margaret Thatcher by Jane Bown (Copyright: Jane Bown) Margaret ThatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s years as Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher served three continuous terms as Prime Minister, between 1979 and 1990. She is the CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s longest-serving premier since Lord Salisbury. Her radical economic policies and robust approach to politics were branded Ã¢â¬ËThatcherismÃ¢â¬â¢ and became widely influential both at home and abroad.She placed great importance on fostering BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s historic links with the English-speaking peoples of the World, and nurtured the Ã¢â¬Ëspecial relationshipÃ¢â¬â¢ with the United States. At a time when there was general acceptance that BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s pow er was diminishing following the end of Empire, she worked hard to raise the profile of the United Kingdom on the World stage. Her success in defending the Falkland Islands against Argentinian aggression in 1982 won In 1992 she was raised to the peerage, taking her seat in the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire.In 1995 she was raised to the Order of the Garter. her great praise. She is credited with bringing about the CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic recovery and with breaking many of the restrictive working practices of the past. The Country underwent significant change during her premiership. However, strong views and robust politics brought out a mixture of both positive and negative reactions in people, and in 1990, despite an unbroken line of three election successes, divisions within her own party mirrored the rising discontent within the Country.She resigned in 1990 after a leadership election. Antony Dufort Ã¢â¬â the designing and makin g of the statue Ã¢â¬Å"Creating the statue was an enormous but fascinating challenge. I already had considerable experience of making large freestanding sculptures to go outside, such as my Ã¢â¬ËFast bowlerÃ¢â¬â¢ for the MCC at LordÃ¢â¬â¢s Ground, and the Tribute sculpture Ã¢â¬ËTesting for GasÃ¢â¬â¢ for the Coal Miners and Collieries of the Nottinghamshire Coalfields at Silverhill near Mansfield. But the context of the House of Commons statue was particularly complex.Not only would it have to complement the scale and style of the Above Mould maker Liz Turner peels back the silicon rubber inner layer of the mould. This Ã¢â¬ËintermediateÃ¢â¬â¢ mould is used to make a wax replica of the sculpture, as part of the Ã¢â¬Ëlost waxÃ¢â¬â¢ casting process (Photo: Antony Dufort) three existing bronze statues of Prime Ministers in the Lobby, but also stand up to the scrutiny of Members as they passed it each working day. Moreover here was a sitter whose appearance the whole wor ld felt they knew, though most had never met her.Finally, this was the first statue of a female Prime Minister, and there was no precedent to follow. However for me, Oscar NemonÃ¢â¬â¢s splendid sculpture of Winston Churchill set a standard to emulate. Ã¢â¬ During Late May and early June 2004, the sculptor was given three sittings with Baroness Thatcher. These took place in the River Room of the Lord ChancellorÃ¢â¬â¢s Residence in the House of Lords. Ã¢â¬Å"Baroness Thatcher chatted to her assistant Gillian Penrose while I sculpted her. This let me see her face in animationÃ¢â¬â vital for giving the sculpture a feeling of life.Her conversation was an intriguing mixture of reminiscence, observation, authority, seriousness and humour, which gave me a powerful impression of the many sides of her character. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In the breaks from modelling we discussed my preliminary designs and a range of photographs showing her speaking, including stills from her famous last speech to the Commons on 22 November 1990. She preferred those with Ã¢â¬Å"intensityÃ¢â¬ , which showed her Ã¢â¬Å"concentrating on getting the message acrossÃ¢â¬ . When I pointed out the hint of humour in the corner of her mouth,Above At the foundry wax worker Dorota Rapacz removes the silicon rubber mould from the wax cast of the head and shoulders (Photo: Antony Dufort) The separate sections of the hollow wax replica are assembled at the foundry to ensure a good fit. Dorota Rapacz prepares to Ã¢â¬ËweldÃ¢â¬â¢ the seams, 23 October 2006 (Photo: Antony Dufort) she explained the necessity of not just dominating the audience but Ã¢â¬Å"getting the message across by introducing humourÃ¢â¬ ¦so the audience can relax. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"As fundamental for the success of the sculpture as the accurate portrayal of her face would be the expression of her character through movement and gesture.We agreed that it was important not to replicate the gestures of any of the existing statues. She ex plained how she unobtrusively shifted her weight from one leg to another during a long speech to avoid fatigue and would turn towards her Ã¢â¬Å"own peopleÃ¢â¬ , the Opposition or Mr. Speaker in turnÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"She demonstrated this and a range of arm movements, and linked movements of the head and upper body as if she were giving just such a speech. She liked the idea of the sculpture Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦just having papers in one hand, I think we will ruin things by having too much in. Ã¢â¬ The diamond brooch on herAbove The wax sections are covered with layers of ceramic shell. This shell forms the mould when the wax is melted out and the narrow void filled with molten bronze (Photo: Antony Dufort) lapel was a special favourite. So was the bracelet of gold and semi-precious stones, given to her by her husband Denis, so that was included as well. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Baroness ThatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s professionalism in sitting, friendliness, and willingness to be consulted and to analyse her appearance and Ã¢â¬Ëbody languageÃ¢â¬â¢ objectively was enormously helpful to me in developing the design and composition of the statue. Ã¢â¬ From material and information gathered during these sittings, the sculptor developed the portrait likeness and the animated composition of the statue. This shows Baroness Thatcher leaning slightly forwards. She supports herself mostly on her right leg, with her left leg lightly flexed. This in turn raises the left heel slightly from the ground. She is Ã¢â¬Ëmaking a pointÃ¢â¬â¢ with her raised right hand and holds notes in her left. Her head is inclined gently to the right. Above Molten bronze at 1200 degrees centigrade is poured into the mould of the top section (head and shoulders) of the sculpture, 10 December 2006 (Photo: Antony Dufort)Committee Members Peter Ainsworth MP, Frank Doran MP, Hugo Swire MP (Chairman) and Anne Main MP visit Bronze Age Foundry in December 2006 to view the bronze cast of the head and shoulders emerging from the mould (Photo: Terry Moore) A choice from a series of three small preliminary maquettes presented by the sculptor, was made as the Ã¢â¬Ëdesign optionÃ¢â¬â¢ for the half-size Ã¢â¬Ëworking maquetteÃ¢â¬â¢ by the Works of Art Committee in April 2005. This in turn was unanimously approved in early 2006, and work on enlarging to a scale of one and a quarter above life size began in the sculptorÃ¢â¬â¢s former Baptist Chapel Studio in Gloucestershire in February 2006.After eight months of continuous work, enlarging and then refining the detail and surface of the 7ft ft 4Ã¢â¬ clay model, moulds were made and taken to Bronze Age Foundry in London. Over the next three and a half months, under the sculptorÃ¢â¬â¢s constant supervision, the sculpture was cast, welded, fettled and patinated. After completion on the 9th February 2007, it was transported to the House of Commons and erected on the vacant stone plinth in MembersÃ¢â¬â¢ Lobby, in readiness for the unveiling cere mony on the 21st February 2007.Antony Dufort with the wrapped statue as it passes the marble statue of Gladstone in Central Lobby (Photo: Matthew Tugwell) The statue is lifted onto the empty plinth in MembersÃ¢â¬â¢ Lobby by Keith Baker, James Elliot and associates on 10th February 2007 (Photo: Matthew Tugwell) Ã © Parliamentary Copyright 2007 Designed and Printed by Print Services, Vote Office, House of Commons Back Cover Baroness Thatcher and Antony Dufort in MembersÃ¢â¬â¢ Lobby after the installation of the statue on 10th February 2007 (Photo: Matthew Tugwell)
Sunday, September 15, 2019
As one of the creators of the new Constitution of 1788, you are chosen to present its strengths as compared to the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. What areas of importance will you stress in attempting to get it passed unanimously? Give good well-reasoned arguments in a report of approximately 400 words. You will need to research the details of each document, using resources from the library, the Internet, or other sources. Be sure to use proper spelling and grammar. Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation were a written agreement, ratified by the thirteen original states of the United States of America, which laid the guidelines as to how the US government was supposed to function. Sometimes, simply referred to as Articles, this agreement was created in November 1777, and ratified by the 13 original states in March 1781. Within a few years of its ratification, it was subjected to severe criticism by the Founding Fathers of the United States. Eventually, it was decided that this agreement had to be revised to suit the needs of the nation as a whole. In May 1787, delegates from the 13 states met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. However, in course of convention all the delegation members came to a mutual conclusion that rewriting the entire Constitution was better than revising the existing Articles of the Confederation. The US Constitution The US Constitution, which is considered to be the supreme law in the United States of America today, is an agreement which provides the guidelines for the organization of the United States government, i.e. the federal government, and its relationship with various states and citizens of the country. Basically, the numerous problems with the Articles laid the foundation for a new constitution. When the delegates from all the thirteenÃ states met to revise the Articles of Confederation, they came to a mutual conclusion that drafting a new constitution was much viable option than revising the existing one which was full of problems. The delegates involved in the Philadelphia Convention, where the new US Constitution was drafted, included some of the prominent names of the American history including James Madison, George Washington, William Pierce and Benjamin Franklin. Articles of Confederation vs. the US Constitution If you try to compare the Articles with the new Constitution, you realize that the former was full of drawbacks, while the latter had answers to all these drawbacks. The Articles was subjected to severe criticism for the very fact that it centralized all the powers in the hands of state government, and left the national government with no major powers at all. As opposed to the unicameral system which was facilitated by the Articles of Confederation, the US Constitution introduced the bicameral system of governance, which was divided into the upper house and lower house. Yet another difference between the two was pertaining to the number of votes each state had. While the Articles had a provision of one vote for every single state irrespective of its size, the US Constitution had the provision of one vote per representative or senator. Similarly, the new Constitution also made provision for executive and judiciary branches of the government, something which the Articles of Confederation didnÃ¢â¬â¢t facilitate. When the Articles were the supreme law of the land, the national government required approval from 9 of the total 13 states to pass new laws. This was also changed in the new Constitution wherein approval of more than half of the total nominees of the states is enough to pass new laws. In order to amend the constitution, the national government required unanimous approval from all the 13 states. As per the new law though, the number was changed and only 2/3rd of the both houses and 3/4th of state legislatures was enough to amend the Constitution. This made the task of amending very easy, and the 27 amendments to the US Constitution highlight this very fact very well. The federal courts were not in picture when the Articles of Confederation was the supreme law. But when the US Constitution was introduced, it did feature provision for federal courts, which were assigned the responsibility of resolving disputes between the citizens as well as the states. While the Articles didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give the national government the right to levy taxes on its citizens, the Constitution did give the federal government the powers to do so. Similarly, the federal government required approval from the states to raise an army as per the stipulations of the Articles. According to the Constitution, on the other hand, the federal government has the right to raise an army to deal with conflict situations. The Articles didnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow any interference on the part of the federal government in terms of regulation of trade and commerce, but the US Constitution gave the federal government the right to control trade and commerce at the international level as well as the int er-state level. The new Constitution was drafted because the Articles of Confederation, which preceded it, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t live up to the expectations. The states were undoubtedly happy as they were in command, with the national government having no enforcing authority whatsoever, but this left the United States of America in a state of chaos Ã¢â¬â with each state coming up with its own laws. With all this chaos, the US Constitution was surely the need of the hour.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
In the previous sequence, Joe imitated a feminine voice to get a job with Jerry in a group of female musicians. But an ellipsis deals with their disguise, obscured by a continuity shot. Thus it is a way two new feminine characters who appear on the platform. This sequence also marks the appearance of Sugar/Marilyn and the confrontation of the single men with Ã¢â¬Ëa completely different sex'. 1. Tracking in with a background of nervous jazz : a close shot shows the back of the two musicians, from waist to heels.We recognize them thanks to their instruments : on the left, with the bow legs which hardly hold on the high heels belong to the player of double bass, Jerry. On the right, Joe walks more straight ahead, but the muscles of his calves are not less bulging. The extras who overtake them are all men, what even more points up their femininity. 2. From then now, the tracking out shows us the Ã¢â¬Å"resultÃ¢â¬ of the disguise in the face.Joe, made up tastefully, makes a likely an d elegant woman, his white fur collar contrasting with his dark clothes; Jerry, with his more extravagant leopardskin collar enhanced by a rustle and by a double feather on his cloche hat, mixes in his clothes hairs, feathers and petals. His lipstick extends widely beyond his upper lip, we guess he is worry thanks to a pout. In voice-over, an announcement of the station tells that the train which Joe and Jerry get ready to take is the Ã¢â¬Å"Florida LimitedÃ¢â¬ , that goes to Miami.The musicians thus get the job in the girls' orchestra, but will they go through the test of the disguise? 3. 4. Close shots on Joe, then on Jerry, each of them seems to take a detached expression in a weak-willed manner. They allow to see closer how each acts like a woman : Joe, simpering, glancing aside, is in the register of seduction. Jerry, in perpetual adjustment, oscillates between the girl (when he opens wide eyes) and the lady 5. 6. 7. Follow-up of the tracking in in the back.First lurch of Jer ry, who twists his ankle because of his high heels. It is not the first time he grumbles since Joe, pragmatic (their aim is to get in the train to escape the gangsters) is irritated by his lamentations. Tony Curtis, with his pale and powdered complexion, his half-closed eyelids as if he was already bored to be disguised as a woman, lets to Jack Lemmon a surprising and excessive palette of face expressions. (6). Bent forwards, Jerry keeps repeating the sex change, unable to be used to the conventions which govern the feminine clothing. How can they walk on these things? Ã¢â¬ Joe's very coarse and anatomical answer (Ã¢â¬Å"Must be the way their weight is distributedÃ¢â¬ ) directly anticipates the appearance of Sugar, differently Ã¢â¬Å"distributedÃ¢â¬ indeed. After there is a reverse shot on the line of musicians who gets on the train (7) supplies a set of specimens who adds to Jerry's panic (Ã¢â¬Å"It's no use. We'll never get away with itÃ¢â¬ . Not always come to know ever y details of his character, he turns his glance to an ideal model. 8. 9.Catching, off screen, the eyes of both actors playing a female role, Sugar also appears, Ã¢â¬Å"cut in twoÃ¢â¬ at the belt-level. The music theme completely changes for a slower but warmer jazz (the muted trumpet replaces the saxophone). As Jerry, she is wearing a feather on her hat, and her ukulele, she is holding like a feminine accessory, seems like a miniature bass. These are the first two common points, still discreet, of a relation in mirror between Daphne and Sugar who will go on throughout the film.When she passes by near Joe and Jerry, the glances focus on the bottom of her body in so fixing a way like in a cartoon (the glance of the lustful wolf of Tex Avery) 10. a. Front/behind : contrary to Joe and Jerry, Sugar is filmed at first by face at the top, then by back, at the bottom. In point 2, the suspense focused the expectation of the spectator on the transformation (what will Curtis and Lemmon look like in woman? ); here, the suspense is in a way erotic : once Marilyn is identified by face, the question concerns her clothes, how her figure is emphasized.We also notice that Marilyn's acting is as exuberant as that of her two partners : fluttering her lashes, moving her lips, rolling gait, she overplays femininity almost as much as Lemmon and Curtis 10. b. The echo of point 9 with point 1 is interrupted by the vapour blast which, from the train, surprises Sugar. The goal is to aim Marilyn's bottom. In point 6, Jerry complained about draughts under his dress, alluding to the anatomical difference between man and woman but also to the fact that the disguise displays him : it is an exposure.More than the draught, the white vapour blast materializes the desire which has just sprung from this first meeting : Sugar is literally Ã¢â¬Å"whistledÃ¢â¬ by the train. He also puts Sugar in experimental feminine subject : how does she react? How does she move? How does she go on walking a fter this hitch? 11. Ã¢â¬ it's like jello on springs! Ã¢â¬ . As a boy who took a toy into pieces to see how it works, Jerry questions the anatomical difference, wonders about feminine mechanics and already sees in Sugar a model to be imitated, whereas Joe, totally blown away, is brought down by love at first sight.The left and the right of the shot are separated by an invisible border between drama and comic. 12. When the newsboy arrives, the headlines of the newspaper (the gangsters are looking for the witnesses of the massacre) definitely position the disguise. Contrary to what Joe promises, Jerry and him are not going to stop this masquerade. If they want to live, they have to reborn in women, come across the shot and blend in the reverse shot, join the line of blond women with hat and instrument. 13. It is a success. Both of them are credible.Nevertheless Jerry, who is not completely transformed yet, has difficulties in speaking more high-pitched. Ã¢â¬Å"You two from the Po liakoff Agency? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, we're the new girls. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Brand newÃ¢â¬ . This first pun of a long series done by Jerry betrays his jubilation to be between two sexes. 14. 15. 16. 17. This series of shots and reverse shots sets up, between the two men, a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"every man for himselfÃ¢â¬ : Jerry surprises Josephine by renaming Daphne, Josephine invents a story about the Sheboygan Conservatory of Music (This city really exists in Wisconsin).Their first conversation with Ã¢â¬Å"SweetÃ¢â¬ Sue introduces a crossing of border from a sex to the other one, but also a time travel. Aboard this train, the transvestites travel with twenty-year-old girls, in an atmosphere of summer camp bossed around by an iron lady. 18. First feminine misadventure of Jerry (Bienstock pinches his bottom). But both are recognised as Ã¢â¬Å"real ladiesÃ¢â¬ : this remark of the only man of the troop sounds like a birth certificate.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Data Privacy in Electronic Health Records System - Essay Example The data stored in the system are accurate and updated on regular basis and require data banks for that process. PatientÃ¢â¬â¢s state is captured, and his/her medical history can be retrieved at ease when needed by the medical personnel despite the density of the data at their end user. In that case, privacy and confidentiality become an issue (Fetter 409). The confidentiality is at risk because information may easily get into the third party who gets access to the network and hospital system. The information in the system can only be modified using one modifiable file this ensures data is correct and precise. On patients with long-term illness, their medical history can be retrieved, and his/her development studied for precise treatment depending on the development. Hacking and malicious intentions are the prominent problems. The systems can be hacked and patients medical information was stolen and used for unscrupulous deeds (Amatayakul and Amatayakul 45). Clinicians may also carelessly place their tablets or computers at insecure places where they can be stolen and patientÃ¢â¬â¢s information can be accessed disclosing the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, which is always private and confidential, between the patient and clinician no third parties involved. In case of virus invasion on the system, all data may be lost leaving no records of patients especially the medical history, which is much far important as patientÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being is concerned. Illegal access to the system may cause more damage to patients since patients medical information can be exaggerated even changed leading to a wrong diagnosis and eventually wrong medications to patients. To curb the vice, the infrastructure platform should be supported by software designs with functionalities that prevent and avert the menace.Ã
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Competitive Structure and Resources of Southwest Airlines - Research Paper Example Even though it is common knowledge that Southwest Airlines has a very large share of the market, there are also as many buyers or air transport travelers as possible, who use the serves of other airlines within the market region where Southwest Airlines operate (Mazzeo, 2009). As far as buyer entry barriers are concerned, there are no buyer entry barriers for patrons of air transportation and this gives a very strong indication as to why Southwest Airlines is operating a perfect competition. Even more, regardless of all the successes that has been seen by the airline in its market segment, there continues to be fierce competition among other key competitors with no competitor having a market share of more than 30% (Prince and Simon, 2009). What this means is that market share is low and there are other substitute products in terms of other forms of transportation that consumer may fall on. Macro and international influences on the firm As an international company, the operations of S outhwest Airlines are greatly affected by a number of macro and international factors, of which the company barely has no authority or control over. Whereas some of these macro and international influences are political, some are economical, whiles others are social. As far as political factors are concerned, it is on record that even though the American and Chinese governments have each tried as much as possible to keep taxes on air transport minimal, factors like homeland security, infrastructure enhancement and environmental protection have led to a situation whereby there are huge sums of taxes imposed on the traveling public (Mazzeo, 2009). These taxes are often translated into higher airline tickets, which generally affect the rate at which people choose to travel by air. The table below represents some of the special commercial aviation taxes that are paid in the United States, where Southwest Airline is very dominant. Type of Tax Rate Passenger ticket tax 7.50% Flight Segmen t Tax (Domestic) $3.8 Frequent Flyer Tax 7.5% International Departure Tax $16.7 International Arrival Tax %16.7 September 11th Fee $2.5 Customs User Fee $5.5 Federal Security Sub-charge $2.5 Passenger Facility Charge $4.5 Source: Airlines for America By provisions of the government, these are taxes that are inevitable to the airline and those influences its pricing, promotions and marketing style all together. The economic recession, which has over the years become unpredictable, and growing inflation problems are some macro economic factors that affect the company. What is more, demographics of travelers happens to be a majority macro social factor that influences Southwest Airlines given that air transport is fast becoming the preserve of the elite and that there has to be more of the higher social class emanating from society to get the market really booming. Changes in market structure Over the years, the market structure with which Southwest Airlines competed in has changed sig nificantly. Most of these changes have actually taken place in terms of the availability of skill, labor and raw materials. For instance, with the advancement of technology, which is dominating almost every type of industrial sector in the global economic regime, the use of highly skilled labor force is no longer an optional choice for the
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
What is fairness (fair) and what is justice (just) Compare and contrast both - Personal Statement Example 161). It means all citizens have the same rights as anyone else, regardless of their station or lot in life. In Platos definition, justice means attending to the proper order of things in society. Justice means equal respect for the rights of everyone, without discrimination to age, gender, race, color, etc. Fairness, on the other hand, means a quality of being free from bias, inequity, injustice, or making decisions or judgments without any discrimination. To be fair means to be making the compromises necessary for all parties concerned, although it may not mean complete justice. The notion of fairness can be better understood in the norm of need. This means being fair is to help all people meet their needs according to what is just, and also based on resource constraints. Not all individuals can be given what they need, but some can partly be satisfied based on fairness. A good example is the obligation of the state to provide everyone with health insurance coverage but not everybody can be covered due to limitations of financial resources or budget cuts. In this connection, the Affirmative Action program was designed to address the fairness issue, with regards to access to educational and employment opportunities (Jansson, 2009, p. 30) and intended to counteract the discrimination suffered by some minorities or segment of society. It attempts to create an equal or level playing field, with the stated aim to achieve social
Global Strategy - Essay Example These are ownership, location and internalization. Ownership is analogous to Porter's competitive advantages and is concerned with ownership of "such things as proprietary technology, superior marketing skills, economies of scale in production, superior management skills, and other firm-specific capabilities". Location is ability of a company to use location advantages in reducing manufacturing costs. Finally internalisation deals with whether activities are performed in the company or outside the company. This case study done by Liu, H. and Li, K. (2002) discusses Haier, a leading Chinese company specialising in home electronics. This company in its short time has grown from a small enterprise employing 600 people to its present status as a leading multinational enterprise (MNE) which is in the Fortune 500. Haier's path to internationalisation has been unique and highly effective. According to Liu, H. and Li, K. (2002) the analysis of its internationalisation strategy can be viewed in terms of the environment - strategy - performance framework. The environment being classified into two classes of positive factors collectively referred to as the impetus and the negative factors collectively referred to as constraints. The end of the cold war which came as a result of collapse of communism in Europe created an international environment with reduced polarisation. At the same time China was liberalising and opening its market in the 1990s. China has had the longest sustained economic growth since the 1980s. The annual average growth rate has been more than 8% for more than 20 years. Haier's history of growth started in 1984 with the appointment of current CEO Zhang Rulmin. At that time China's economy was drastically changing. Competition among the domestic producers of home appliances was hotting up. Liberalisation of the economy brought foreign players to compete in an already saturating market. The admittance of China into the World trade Organisation (WTO) in 2001 opened the floodgates. Many companies from developed countries were rushing to enter the Chinese market. Not willing to compete using a price war Haier was forced to look outside China for further growth in its business. The external constraints on Haier in its internationalisation strategy were lack of financial resources. The company was under-equipped and under-financed. For the company to expand it had to develop innovative strategies for financing its overseas expansion. The Government was supportive of Haier and allowed them to form a bank and use it as a vehicle of financing its own expansion abroad. The Japanese firms which internationalised followed two generic paths as shown in the diagram below. Figure 1 Internationalization paths for Japanese Companies, Liu, H. and Li, K. (2002) The Type I path was popular as it allowed the company to use the ventures in developing countries to acquire skills for international operation. These skills are used to enter developed countries. This strategy also favors a low cost strategy where the lower costs of manufacturing in developing countries are used to service the market in developed countries. The Type II strategy which starts with entrance into developed markets and then expansion into
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Art - Essay Example He had stated the same six years earlier, in his rather personal manifesto in the catalogue of his 1855 exhibition: To word, to make a living art, that is my aim.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is a very important idea that artists must contend with in the contemporary world since itÃ¢â¬â¢s the basis of pop art. Secondly, Pop Art was created in New York and London, and its view is on the very special world of the mid-twentieth-century metropolis. Unmistakably, Pop is rooted in the urban environment. Additionally, Pop looks at special aspects of that environment which because of their associations and cultural level seemed impossible as subjects of art. These included: comics and picture magazines, the world of popular entertainment, Hollywood movies, pop music and fairgrounds; consumer durables, foodstuffs and even money. Thirdly, pop artists treat this subject matter in a special manner. For instance, they insist that a soup can or comic strip is simply a Ã¢â¬Ëmotif, an excuse for a painting, like an apple in a still-life by Cezanne. Roy Lichtenstein, for instance has said before that: Ã¢â¬ËOnce I am involved with the painting I think of it as an abstraction. Half the time, they are upside down anyway when I work.Ã¢â¬â¢ On the contrary, while in a Cezanne the motif is a familiar one, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s easy for the viewer to ignore it and focus on the formal qualities of the painting, in Pop Art this motif is by no means familiar and thus strongly engages the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention (Rubin 162). Not only is the motif new, its presentation was startlingly literal and looked more like the real thing than ever before in artÃ¢â¬â¢s history. The outcome was a kind of art combining the abstract and the figurative in a new way. It was realism, though done in the full knowledge of all that happened i n modern art since the time of Courbet. The next part of the discussion focuses on the major Pop artists, namely Roy