Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Protection of Intellectual Property, Confidentiality, and Freedom of E Essay

Protection of Intellectual Property, Confidentiality, and Freedom of Expression on the Internet - Essay Example Internet suppression can maintain its vital role in providing an efficient and democratic means of distributing information around the world. The act of hate speech, pornography and the like are very alarming in the country as it can affect the lives of the people involved with some sort of wrong information. These are my main concern for opposing the use of free speech. Websites that contain pornographic and obscene material and information are also widespread on the internet which can give a bad effect to the users. Even it is impossible to totally discontinue its operation on the internet, the government shall act on carrying out the censorship by filtering its every feature and applying the rules in creating a useful website.As the technologies progress, any person with an internet connection has the potential to reach other people with anonymity thus, syndicates can easily use cybercrime to perform their bad intention with the advantage of hidden personal identity from the law e nforcers. Crimes and dilemma which emerged from improper usage of the internet can be reduced if people using it are responsible enough of their right and if the law is implemented strictly.Encouraging awareness and advocacy in protecting one’s own right as well as the rights of others will be of great help in minimizing the risks of crimes and the dilemma associated with internet use.Legal aspects related to utilization of networked information devices and technologies such as the existence of cyber law will also help in regulating some of the most important topics including intellectual property, privacy, freedom of expression, and jurisdiction.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Agro Processing Industries Essay Example for Free

Agro Processing Industries Essay Rural Entrepreneurship through Agro-Processing Industries Mrs. P. Geetha, Lecturer in Economics, Sri GVG Visalakshi College for Women, Udumalpet, TamilNadu, India In India there are about 6. 3 million villages and 340 million workers in rural unorganized sector who contribute 60% of national income. About 75% of populations who live in villages have to utilize the village resources. In rural areas mainly three types of economic activities are being undertaken. These activities are: primary, secondary and tertiary activities. When we talk of rural development, the emphasis is on the development of agriculture, industry, trade and service sectors. Among these activities, agriculture till now is the main occupational activity in the rural areas as most of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood and employment. A small stimulation will dynamite the rural economy and lead to improved quality of life. Rural areas must try for better utilization of human resources to improve the rural economy. Promoting agro-based industries, cottage and small-scale industries would serve the purpose of rural entrepreneurship development. Importance of Agro-Processing Industries Agro processing could be defined as set of techno economic activities carried out for conservation and handling of agricultural produce and to make it usable as food, feed, fibre, fuel or industrial raw material. Hence, the agro-processing industry is regarded as the sunrise sector of the Indian economy. Properly developed, agro-processing sector would not only encourage rural entrepreneurship but also can make India a major player at the global level for marketing and supply of processed food, feed and a wide range of other plant and animal products. Categories of Agro – Industry i) Village Industries owned and run by rural households with very little capital investment and a high level of manual labour. Ex. pickles, papad, etc. ii) Small scale industry characterized by medium investment and semi-automation. Ex. edible oil, rice mills, etc. iii) Large-scale industry involving large investment and a high level of automation. Ex. Sugar, jute, cotton mills, etc Prospects The agro processing sector offers scope for development of several industries such as solvent extraction, oleoresins, kinnow/orange juice, malt extracts, floriculture and a host of other items.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Aline Helgs Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912 :: Aline Helg History Cuba Essays

Aline Helg's Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912 Introduction: Within Aline Helg’s book titled, Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912, she includes many historical events that serve as a foundation for her arguments in order to emphasize the "black struggle for equality" starting in the late 19th century and according to her, still transpiring today. These events are, the formation of the first black independent political party called the, Partido Independiente de Color (146), the United States’ role during intervention and the black struggle to overcome the system of racial hierarchies that had developed in Cuba. Blacks had to fight for equality while simultaneously being, "†¦accused of racism and antinationalism". (145) According to Helg, this placed an undue burden on the black groups that were organizing to demand their "rightful share" because it made divided the goals of their plight into many different facets, thus yielding a lack of unity necessary for their success. During the United Stat es’ intervention, Cuban nationalism as a whole was threatened which also served to downplay the importance of demands being made by the Partido’s leader, Estenoz. The United States displayed a greater concern on the affirmation of its power as an international police, rather than allying its resources to help the indignant and discriminated Afro-Cubans. All of these circumstances illustrate the extremities of the political and social institutions that the Afro-Cubans attempted to defeat but could not. They also exemplify the perpetuation of the black struggle, and how it affected and continues to affect the lives of Afro-Cubans in present-day Cuba. Racial Hierarchies and Ideologies in Cuba The entire struggle that Helg is alluding to in her book is founded within the racial hierarchies and racial ideologies that were formed early on in Cuba’s history. Several aspects of Cuban society (as discussed by Helg) served to foster the racism and the antagonistic attitudes that whites had towards the Afro-Cubans. An acute example of the inequality that the blacks were made to suffer was the denial of citizenship after 1886. According to Helg, Afro-Cubans were denied the titles of "Don" and "Doà ±a" on their identity cards. This was a blatant form of discrimination against because it prevented blacks from being considered as first class citizens, "†¦despite the fact that they were full taxpayers". (25) What Helg means by this is that even though the Afro-Cubans were participating in the economic spectrum of Cuba, they were still denied access into the political and social arenas.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Ban a Pit bull, Save a Life: Why the Ontario Ban against Pit bull Terri

â€Å"Mom! Mom! The dogs got Cody. The dogs got Cody† (Vancouver Sun, 2007). Just a few days after Christmas in 2004, these are the cries that awoke Sheri Fontaine. Fontaine raced from her bed into the living room to find her three-year old son, Cody Fontaine, savaged by the dogs that were staying temporarily in her house. Tragically, young Cody did not survive the attack. A young life taken, a mother’s life ruined. Sadly, this story is not as uncommon as one of violence against people, they exhibit highly stubborn characteristics that make them difficult to control, and such bans have proven to be extremely effective. In 2005, the Ontario Liberal government passed The Dog Owner’s Liability Act: a ban against pit bull terriers in the province. After the bill passed, Attorney General Michael Bryant said, â€Å"Mark my words, Ontario will be safer† (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). The legislation prevented people from acquiring a number of breeds of dogs that would be classified as pit bulls. In addition, Ontario residents who already owned a pit bull terrier prior to the ban were required to neuter and muzzle their animals. Such policies against this breed of animal are not unprecedented. In fact, similar laws are already in place in Britain, France and Germany. In Canada, Winnipeg has had a ban against pit bull terriers in place for 20 years (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). Ontario and other regions have imposed these sanctions because the evidence clearly indicates that pit bull terriers pose a much higher than average risk to people. Pit bull terriers have a long track record of attacks against people and animals. A 1987 study of a particularly savage attack against a child was documented by four doctors in the hopes... ... An Analysis of the Pit bull Terrier Controversy. Anthrozoos, 2-8. Raghavan, M. (2008). Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990–2007. The Canadian Verterinary Journal, 577– 581. Ruryk, Z. (2008, March 2). One endangered species: But pit bull attacks are down. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from Toronto Sun: Smith, C. (2009, April 9). Media coverage of Surrey pit bull attack prompts protest by Vancouver pit bull owners. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from 213929/media-coverage-surrey-pit-bull-attack-prompts-protest-vancouver-pit-bull-owners Vancouver Sun. (2007, February 6). Kids' cries woke mom of boy, 3, killed by dogs' bites. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from f9a5ab25d2a5 Ban a Pit bull, Save a Life: Why the Ontario Ban against Pit bull Terri â€Å"Mom! Mom! The dogs got Cody. The dogs got Cody† (Vancouver Sun, 2007). Just a few days after Christmas in 2004, these are the cries that awoke Sheri Fontaine. Fontaine raced from her bed into the living room to find her three-year old son, Cody Fontaine, savaged by the dogs that were staying temporarily in her house. Tragically, young Cody did not survive the attack. A young life taken, a mother’s life ruined. Sadly, this story is not as uncommon as one of violence against people, they exhibit highly stubborn characteristics that make them difficult to control, and such bans have proven to be extremely effective. In 2005, the Ontario Liberal government passed The Dog Owner’s Liability Act: a ban against pit bull terriers in the province. After the bill passed, Attorney General Michael Bryant said, â€Å"Mark my words, Ontario will be safer† (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). The legislation prevented people from acquiring a number of breeds of dogs that would be classified as pit bulls. In addition, Ontario residents who already owned a pit bull terrier prior to the ban were required to neuter and muzzle their animals. Such policies against this breed of animal are not unprecedented. In fact, similar laws are already in place in Britain, France and Germany. In Canada, Winnipeg has had a ban against pit bull terriers in place for 20 years (Ontario passes ban on pit bulls, 2005). Ontario and other regions have imposed these sanctions because the evidence clearly indicates that pit bull terriers pose a much higher than average risk to people. Pit bull terriers have a long track record of attacks against people and animals. A 1987 study of a particularly savage attack against a child was documented by four doctors in the hopes... ... An Analysis of the Pit bull Terrier Controversy. Anthrozoos, 2-8. Raghavan, M. (2008). Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990–2007. The Canadian Verterinary Journal, 577– 581. Ruryk, Z. (2008, March 2). One endangered species: But pit bull attacks are down. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from Toronto Sun: Smith, C. (2009, April 9). Media coverage of Surrey pit bull attack prompts protest by Vancouver pit bull owners. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from 213929/media-coverage-surrey-pit-bull-attack-prompts-protest-vancouver-pit-bull-owners Vancouver Sun. (2007, February 6). Kids' cries woke mom of boy, 3, killed by dogs' bites. Retrieved April 20, 2011, from f9a5ab25d2a5

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Chi Mei Optoelectronics Essay

1. What prompted CMO to diversify from its core petrochemical base? What were the risks involved? In the late 1980s, Ho started to think that the future for petrochemicals in Taiwan was not very bright. At that time, he made the first visit to the nascent Hsinchu Science-Based Park where he found that everybody was doing pretty well. Then he began to think diversifying into something. Ho’s good friend Wu had been the principal investigator on the first TFT-LCD research project at the Electronics Research Service Organization (ERSO), part of the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). ITRI had been responsible for the original technology transfer of RCA’s CMOS semiconductor process from New Jersey to Taiwan. Under Wu, ITRI had begun an investigation of small TFT-LCDs in 1989 and had moved on to three- to six-inch technology in 1990. But unlike what happened with TSMC, the Taiwanese government suddenly cut the budget, leaving ITRI without enough capital to comple te the plant’s construction. Wu suggested to Ho and Shi that manufacturing color filter arrays for LCD flat panels would be a very good move for Chi Mei, but Shi disagreed. But in 1997, the petrochemical industry suffered a severe contraction due to the Asian economic crisis. They asked Mitsubishi who said color filter was good. So Dr. Wu stayed outside for almost one and a half years until the founder decided to approve the plan. In fact, Chi Mei had been tracking the TFT-LCD industry since 1996, as many of the key ingredients used in fabricating TFT-LCD panels were based on materials derived from petrochemicals and were therefore closely related to CMC’s core products. But Shi was skeptical of direct investment because he was not sure whether his company could get a grasp on the core technologies. Shi soon recognized TFT-LCD as a â€Å"once in 100-year opportunity for Taiwan.† But the TFT-LCD industry counted only Japan, Korea, and Taiwan as major producers, and most of the demand at the time was coming from Taiwanese notebook computer manufactures. Japanese manufacturers supplied most of the color filters which was a lucrative business. Ho explained that by moving to become a full-line TFT-LCD producer, the company would be able to address a much larger market. Another consideration in the decision to enter the TFT-LCD industry was that TFT process technologies were not entirely new territory for CMC. CMC already possessed many chemical processing and mechanical technologies. Although CMC  was privately held, profitability from its petrochemicals operations made it cash-rich, with almost all of its credit lines unused. But Ho and Wu realized the importance of being a public company in order to attract the right talent, and they were able to convince Shi. CMO’s 2006 Annual Report detailed a long line of fund-raising activities to finance what subsequently turned into a huge string of investments. The risks involved were relying on the technical, financial and merchandising resources of the original product line and the company need acquiring new lines and markets, skills, techniques and facilities. 2. How did CMO implement its strategy of being a leading LCD manufacturer? Ho realized that CMO need a different organizational structure with different resources, processes, and priorities, so he opted for a separate subsidiary, with an independent structure and compensation model as well. He redesigned the pay structure by enlarging the compensation differential across various rankings and put in a larger performance bonus component.   They all recognized the importance of attracting key talent and the value such talent placed on an autonomous unit structure with decentralized management and the flexibility to act quickly. From the start, CMO’s strategy was different from other Taiwanese panel makers. CMO licensed the basic technology from ERSO, and then modified the licensed TFT structured and developed a new structure in Fujitsu’s fab. Since this new TFT structure was their own design, they could modify the process by themselves as needed. CMO was able to take advantage of one of the industry downturn cycles to enter the industry. The pioneering Japanese manufacturers were thus able to extend their window of profitability by generating licensing income. So CMO was able to test out some new, experimental cell structure designs using Fujitsu’s equipment and develop its internal processed as it was building its own factory. CMO also agreed to work as a Fujitsu supplier for LCD panels. In essence, they exchanged their production capacity for Fujitsu’s technical support. One of the key philosophies that CMO has is that it doesn’t outright purchase a complete technology package. It tries to develop what it needs to and it may put in some basic technology or hire an outside consultant to develop its proprietary, internal technology. What that allows it to do is to understand that technology much better and it’s much quicker for it to improve the technology. In mid-1999, in addition to becoming a fo undry supplier to  Fujitsu, CMO licensed Fujitsu’s MVA technology, which enabled wide viewing angles for large-size TV panels. CMO’s R&D team subsequently achieved several breakthroughs while working with the original MVA technology, developing its own proprietary â€Å"Omniview Color,† which significantly reduced the color shift of skin tones when viewing the panel from wide angles. In 2002, along with other Taiwanese LCD peers, CMO licensed a set of common TFT-LCD patents from the ERSO unit of ITRI. As CMO developed its capabilities, it sometimes took some major technological risks. While Fab 1 was still under construction, Shi realized that the accelerating rate of competition in the LCD industry necessitated bold investment decisions, so he approved the construction of Fab 2, a Gen 4 facility. By this time, Ho and Wu had become convinced that the key to the market was going to be flat-panel televisions, which meant larger panel sizes than were used in notebook computers and computer monitors. At that time, Fujitsu VLSI was developing an experimental technology called one-drop fill, in which many, many micropipette dispensers would each place a single drop of liquid crystal material between the two pieces of glass before they were sandwiched. CMO had sent a senior R&D team to evaluate the ODF equipment. Implementing a completely new technology like this in production entailed enormous risks. Ultimately, CMO made the decision to make it work and CMO not only became an industry pioneer in suing ODF but also filed many ODF-related patents. 3. Why did CMO vertically integrate? Was this a sound move? Though Chi Mei had originally intended to make only color filters, it had quickly moved into making the TFT-LCD sandwich. From 2003 to 2004 alone, as many as 15 Gen 5 fabs came onstream across Asia, driving finished panel pricing down. In the early part of the decade, display drivers could make up 15%to 20% of the overall production cost of an LCD display. CMO relied exclusively on Texas Instruments for it supply. Strategically, CMO management felt that to be successful over the longer term, the IC design team needed to have exposure to a more balanced customer portfolio, instead of supplying CMO exclusively. Therefore, management decided to spin off the team into a separate entity, Himax, so that it could engage other customers without conflict. CMO was able to move into photomasks, polarizer films, and many other key components by simply leveraging its expertise in chemical manufacturing. With the Himax model as a successful first step in upstream  integration, over the years CMO formed a web of tightly linked subsidiaries across its supply chain. These efforts at vertical integration helped alleviate some of the concerns about the availability of critical components. All these efforts made CMO one of the most vertically integrated of Taiwan’s TFT-LCD manufacturers. CMO created an environment that people come to them, whether internally or externally. 4. How did CMO’s leadership and culture impact the company’s performance? Shi espoused three credos as his guiding principles: (1) business was a way to pursue fulfillment, (2) people-oriented management was important, and (3) harmonious relationships were valuable. These credos set a very powerful tone within the company. A highly decentralized decision-making model enhanced this management philosophy. This made the company a very attractive place to work, allowing it to draw personnel from many quarters of Taiwanese industry when new initiatives were launched. One of the strengths of Chi Mei’s culture is the entrepreneurship and flexibility. The power to attract talent would later turn out to be a key enabler, as the company expanded into areas that required specialized technical expertise. Chi Mei didn’t lure people away from other companies; it just built a good environment and set up â€Å"stages† for people to develop businesses. In fact, all CMO did was build a good environment and everything else followed.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Information Systems in Global Business Today Essay Essay Example

Information Systems in Global Business Today Essay Essay Example Information Systems in Global Business Today Essay Paper Information Systems in Global Business Today Essay Paper 1. Why is it of import to understand the difference between computing machine literacy and information literacy?Answer:Computer literacy – When you are computing machine literate. you have a general working cognition of computing machines. You understand what they can be used for. Most people know that they can type a paper. make a power point and if you have internet entree. you may email and seek the World Wide Web for information. Information literacy- When you are information literate. you understand and are able to garner. analyze and usage information gathered from the assorted types of technological medians – particularly the cyberspace. This individual may entree the cyberspace. for case on their cell phone. iPod. lab tops. and a battalion of medians. some which may hold non yet been realized. -It is of import to understand the difference of this two literacy because A literate individual can non be expected to cognize how to run a computing machine. In kernel. a individual can be literate but non computing machine literate. But the opposite seems hard to be true. A computing machine literate is frequently ever a literate. 2. Discourse the three elements of an information system ( hardware. package and persware ) that directors must see. Which of the three do you see the most of import? Answer:Hardware- Hardware. in the computing machine universe. refers to the physical constituents that make up a computing machine system. Software- is any set of machine-readable instructions ( most frequently in the signifier of a computing machine plan ) that directs a computer’s processor to execute specific operations. Persware- that is short for ‘personware’ or ‘peopleware’ . a awfully inpersonal manner of mentioning to people as a resource. like hardware or package. – I consider being the most of import component if information system is the Persware because without this persware the hardware and the package will be useless. 3. What are some of the new functions information systems are playing in organisations? * The Widening Scope of Information Systems* The Network Revolution and the Internet* New Options for Organizational Design: The Networked Enterprise * Flattening Organizations* Separating work from location* Reorganizing work flows* Increasing flexibleness of organisations* The altering direction procedure* Redefining organisational boundaries* Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business4. Discourse the alterations in the concern environment brought about by engineering in the last three old ages. Use your ain personal experiences to explicate your reply. Answer: There are many alterations in the concern environment brought by the engineering in the last three old ages. I believe that one of the most of import alterations ( impacting accounting pattern ) that has taken topographic point in my experience is the changed relationship between the company and its investors. There is an detonation of needed revelations. and a immense addition in the involvement the investing community has in those revelations. And the cyberspace is the largest alterations because every twelvemonth there is alterations on it. Many plans are nearing that every people in the society can larn many things about those plans brought by the engineering. . 5. Pull your decisions about the article â€Å"IT Doesn’t Matter† by Nicholas Carr by accessing the given URL:[ hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nicholasgcarr. com/articles/matter. html # readings ] . Answer: The article explained the quandary that the IT industry and the terminal users are presently sing. IT used to be a manner for companies to derive a competitory advantage. but nowadays IT has fused into another tool to behavior concern. IT merchandises are going cheaper and cheaper while giving more power. This tendency in the long tally will destruct the economic inducement for IT makers to go on making concern. On the other manus cheaper is better for companies implementing this engineering. The writer made it clear that avoiding trade name new IT merchandises and choosing for somewhat older IT merchandises would salvage money. In add-on. somewhat older merchandises have all the â€Å"kinks ironed out† giving a more dependable system. Buying somewhat older IT merchandises is non a fail safe manner of obtaining efficiency and initial cost nest eggs.

Monday, October 21, 2019

How Flight Control Systems Stabilize Rockets

How Flight Control Systems Stabilize Rockets Building an efficient rocket engine is only part of the problem. The rocket must also be stable in flight. A stable rocket is one that flies in a smooth, uniform direction. An unstable rocket flies along an erratic path, sometimes tumbling or changing direction. Unstable rockets are dangerous because its  not possible to predict where they’ll go – they may even turn upside down and suddenly head directly back to the launch pad. What Makes a Rocket Stable or Unstable? All matter has a point inside called the center of mass or â€Å"CM, regardless of its size, mass or shape. The center of mass is the exact spot where all the mass of that object is perfectly balanced. You can easily find the center of mass of an object - such as a ruler - by balancing it on your finger. If the material used to make the ruler is of uniform thickness and density, the center of mass should be at the halfway point between one end of the stick and the other. The CM would no longer be in the middle if a heavy nail was driven into one of its ends. The balance point would be nearer the end with the nail. CM is important in rocket flight because an unstable rocket tumbles around this point. In fact, any object in flight tends to tumble. If you throw a stick, it will tumble end over end. Throw a ball and it spins in flight. The act of spinning or tumbling stabilizes an object in flight. A Frisbee will go where you want it go to only if you throw it with a deliberate spin. Try throwing a Frisbee without spinning it and youll find that it flies in an erratic path and falls far short of its mark if you can even throw it at all.   Roll, Pitch and Yaw Spinning or tumbling takes place around one or more of three axes in flight: roll, pitch and yaw. The point where all three of these axes intersect is the center of mass. The pitch and yaw axes are the most important in rocket flight because any movement in either of these two directions can cause the rocket to go off course.  The roll axis is the least important because movement along this axis will not affect the flight path. In fact, a rolling motion will help stabilize the rocket the same way a properly passed football is stabilized by rolling or spiraling it in flight. Although a poorly passed football may still fly to its mark even if it tumbles rather than rolls, a rocket will not. The action-reaction energy of a football pass is completely expended by the thrower the moment the ball leaves his hand. With rockets, thrust from the engine is still produced while the rocket is in flight. Unstable motions about the pitch and yaw axes will cause the rocket to leave the planned course. A control system is needed to prevent or at least minimize unstable motions. The Center of Pressure Another important center that affects a rockets flight is its center of pressure or â€Å"CP.† The center of pressure exists only when air is flowing past the moving rocket. This flowing air, rubbing and pushing against the outer surface of the rocket, can cause it to begin moving around one of its three axes. Think of a weather vane, an arrow-like stick mounted on a rooftop and used for telling wind direction. The arrow is attached to a vertical rod that acts as a pivot point. The arrow is balanced so the center of mass is right at the pivot point. When the wind blows, the arrow turns and the head of the arrow points into the on-coming wind. The tail of the arrow points in the downwind direction. A weather vane arrow points into the wind because the tail of the arrow has a much larger surface area than the arrowhead. The flowing air imparts a greater force to the tail than the head so the tail is pushed away. There is a point on the arrow where the surface area is the same on one side as the other. This spot is called the center of pressure. The center of pressure is not in the same place as the center of mass. If it were, then neither end of the arrow would be favored by the wind. The arrow would not point. The center of pressure is between the center of mass and the tail end of the arrow. This means that the tail end has more surface area than the head end. The center of pressure in a rocket must be located toward the tail. The center of mass must be located toward the nose. If they are in the same place or very near each other, the rocket will be unstable in flight. It will try to rotate about the center of mass in the pitch and yaw axes, producing a dangerous situation. Control Systems Making a rocket stable requires some form of control system. Control systems  for rockets keep a rocket stable in flight and steer it. Small rockets usually require only a stabilizing control system. Large rockets, such as the ones that launch satellites into orbit, require a system that not only stabilizes the rocket but also enables it to change course while in flight. Controls on rockets can be either active or passive. Passive controls are fixed devices that keep rockets stabilized by their very presence on the rockets exterior. Active controls can be moved while the rocket is in flight to stabilize and steer the craft. Passive Controls The simplest of all passive controls is a stick. Chinese fire arrows  were simple rockets mounted on the ends of sticks that kept the center of pressure behind the center of mass. Fire arrows were notoriously inaccurate in spite of this. Air had to be flowing past the rocket before the center of pressure could take effect. While still on the ground and immobile, the arrow might lurch and fire the wrong way.   The accuracy of fire arrows was improved considerably years later by mounting them in a trough aimed in the proper direction. The trough guided the arrow until it was moving fast enough to become stable on its own. Another important improvement in rocketry came when sticks were replaced by clusters of lightweight fins mounted around the lower end near the nozzle. Fins could be made out of lightweight materials and be streamlined in shape. They gave rockets a dart-like appearance. The large surface area of the fins easily kept the center of pressure behind the center of mass. Some experimenters even bent the lower tips of the fins in a pinwheel fashion to promote rapid spinning in flight. With these spin fins, rockets become much more stable, but this design produced  more drag and limited the rockets range. Active Controls The weight of the rocket is a critical factor in performance and range. The original fire arrow stick added too much dead weight to the rocket and therefore limited its range considerably. With the beginning of modern rocketry in the 20th century, new ways were sought to improve rocket stability and at the same time reduce overall rocket weight.  The answer was the development of active controls. Active control systems included vanes, movable fins, canards, gimbaled nozzles, vernier rockets, fuel injection and attitude-control rockets.   Tilting fins and canards are quite similar to each other in appearance - the  only real difference is their location on the rocket. Canards are mounted on the front end while tilting fins are at the rear. In flight, the fins and canards tilt like rudders to deflect the air flow and cause the rocket to change course. Motion sensors on the rocket detect unplanned directional changes, and corrections can be made by slightly tilting the fins and canards. The advantage of these two devices is their size and weight. They are smaller and lighter and produce less drag than large fins. Other active control systems can eliminate fins and canards altogether. Course changes can be made in flight by tilting the angle at which the exhaust gas leaves the rocket’s engine. Several techniques can be used for changing exhaust direction.  Vanes are small finlike devices placed inside the exhaust of the rocket engine. Tilting the vanes deflects the exhaust, and by action-reaction the rocket responds by pointing the opposite way.   Another method for changing the exhaust direction is to gimbal the nozzle. A gimbaled nozzle is one that is able to sway while exhaust gases are passing through it. By tilting the engine nozzle in the proper direction, the rocket responds by changing course. Vernier rockets can also be used to change direction. These are small rockets mounted on the outside of the large engine. They fire when needed, producing the desired course change. In space, only spinning the rocket along the roll axis or using active controls involving the engine exhaust can stabilize the rocket or change its direction. Fins and canards have nothing to work upon without air. Science fiction movies showing rockets in space with wings and fins are long on fiction and short on science. The most common kinds of active controls used in space are attitude-control rockets. Small clusters of engines are mounted all around the vehicle. By firing the right combination of these small rockets, the vehicle can be turned in any direction. As soon as they are aimed properly, the main engines fire, sending the rocket off in the new direction.   The Mass of the Rocket The mass of a rocket is another important factor affecting its performance. It can make the difference between a successful flight and wallowing around on the launch pad. The rocket engine must produce a thrust that is greater than the total mass of the vehicle before the rocket can leave the ground. A rocket with a lot of unnecessary mass will not be as efficient as one that is trimmed to just the bare essentials. The total mass of the vehicle should be distributed following this general formula for an ideal rocket:   Ninety-one percent of the total mass  should be propellants.Three percent should be tanks, engines and fins.Payload can account for 6 percent. Payloads may be satellites, astronauts or spacecraft that will travel to other planets or moons. In determining the effectiveness of a rocket design, rocketeers speak in terms of mass fraction or â€Å"MF.† The mass of the rocket’s propellants divided by the total mass of the rocket gives mass fraction:  MF (Mass of Propellants)/(Total Mass) Ideally, the mass fraction of a rocket is 0.91. One might think that an MF of 1.0 is perfect, but then the entire rocket would be nothing more than a lump of propellants that would ignite into a fireball. The larger the MF number, the less payload the rocket can carry. The smaller the MF number, the less its range becomes. An MF number of 0.91 is a good balance between payload-carrying capability and range. The Space Shuttle has an MF of approximately 0.82. The MF varies between the different orbiters in the Space Shuttle fleet and with the different payload weights of each mission. Rockets that are large enough to carry spacecraft  into space have serious weight problems. A great deal of propellant is needed for them to reach space and find proper orbital velocities. Therefore, the tanks, engines and associated hardware become larger. Up to a point, bigger rockets fly farther than smaller rockets, but when they become too large their structures weigh them down too much. The mass fraction is reduced to an impossible number. A solution to this problem can be credited to 16th-century fireworks maker Johann Schmidlap. He attached small rockets to the top of big ones. When the large rocket was exhausted, the rocket casing was dropped behind and the remaining rocket fired. Much higher altitudes were achieved. These rockets used by Schmidlap were called step rockets. Today, this technique of building a rocket is called staging. Thanks to staging, it has become possible not only to reach outer space but the moon and other planets, too. The Space Shuttle follows the step rocket principle by dropping off its solid rocket boosters and external tank when they’re exhausted of propellants.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Critical Analysis Islamic Moral in Novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail

Critical Analysis Islamic Moral in Novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail THESIS: Islamic moral is an important part of the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan as well as the author describes the contact of a lonely child with civilization and Islamic religion.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Critical Analysis: Islamic Moral in Novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More I. Picture of doe’s death as an example of the Hayy’s medical reflections II. Demonstration of the characters’ behavior in the unusual situations as a will to show their moral principles according the norms of Islam A valuable power of â€Å"Dweller† as an understanding of the superiority of moral essence over physical body Hayy’s imagination while dancing in a deep trance as the connection with a supreme power III. The connection between Absal and Hayy as a step of exploration of the Islamic principles An Arabic novelist and Islamic philosopher Ibn Tufail wrote his philoso phical novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, supporting the ideas of dissection and autopsy. Obviously, the author was inspired by Avicenninsm and Sufism. As the novel tells us the story of a child who lived alone in a desert, we can see the results of lonely life together with the illness and in a close connection with the universal essence. Islamic moral is an important part of the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan as well as the author describes the contact of a lonely child with civilization and religion. The story starts with doe’s death. Before its death, it was weak and exhausted. A boy who was near when it died tried to call its name loudly, but the doe did not respond. He tried to scrutinize it in order to see if there was anything wrong with it, but found nothing (Khadra 293).Advertising Looking for essay on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A boy decided that the doe was just pretending unconscious and there still was the possibility to wake her up. The reason of his behavior can be found in his own experience in experimenting with his body. He saw that when he closed his ears with the fingers, he could not hear anything until he removed the fingers. The experiments with his nose gave him an idea about what was making the girl be unconscious. He decided that doe could be awake again. However, after that, he found that the defects were in its internal organs that were intact. He concluded that it was inside the chest since all the organs depended on the organ inside it. He, thus, resolved to open doe’s chest to determine the problem and possibly to rectify it. Therefore, the author describes the physical and medical experiments which are based on his experience an interest of this sphere. Although Ibn Tufayl uses the name of Avicenna’s work Alive, Son of the Awake, the Vigilant, the author provides more philosophical narration and demonstrates the characters’ b ehavior in the unusual situations, trying to show their moral principles according the norms of Islam. Thus, we can see the trappings of religion in the text. The author emphasizes that the material goods only distract people from really important issues such as the truth and strong moral position. In this case, the material things can be considered as the distractions. Such position is a typical for those who live according to the moral principles of Islam. The final conclusion of Hayy who tried to save doe was the supposition that there was a power that drove body organs and when it departed, the body also lost its powers. He referred to this power as the â€Å"Dweller† as a valuable power which is more important that body. After that, he started to be interested in the nature of the â€Å"Dweller†, thinking about its form, destiny, and how is it connected with the body (Khadra 294). Ibn Tufayl provides a very interesting picture of the image that Hayy saw in miracle while dancing in a deep trance. There was a picture of beautiful sun and â€Å"sphere of the fixed stars† (Khadra 295). The essence of the spheres contained thousands of faces glorifying God. Hayy saw some essences that looked like his own but which had belonged to other bodies. This image of the connection with God can be also considered within the Islamic vision. The author uses the esoteric tools, trying to express his philosophical and religious vision. Describing the story of a lonely and somehow wild child, Ibn Tufayl wants to present a human solitary, social isolation and also the first connection and comprehension of God.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Critical Analysis: Islamic Moral in Novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We can see the nature of human logical development. Moreover, such picture of the child’s isolation can be interpreted as the metaphor of the mind’s isolation, closed mind that is not able or not ready to see the real nature of things. It is a model of human development with Hayy as its prototype. The isolated child was growing in a contact with the kindness and gentleness that doe was giving him during his childhood. When a character named Absal arrived to the Hayy’s island, life of the main heroe is going to be changed. Absal decided to go to the island using a boat and some money that he had saved. After arriving on the island, Absal took to worshiping God, eating fruits and animals when he became hungry. Absal saw Hayy as a religious devotee, while Hayy wondered a lot about Absal (Khadra 295). Absal’s initial attempts to communicate with Hayy were failed. However, later, Absal began teaching Hayy his language by telling him the names of various objects and things. Hayy learnt the language quickly and soon the guys could communicate without any barrier. Hayy told Absal about a doe, his vision o f the essences and religion. Finally, Absal came to realize that Hayy was favored by God and he started following his religion. The novel of Iby Tufayl can be considered as the historical and philosophical abstract. The author wants to show the power of the natural reasons as a significant tool that can help living in a harmony with the universe. Obviously, such position is closely related with the moral principles of Islam. Khadra, Salma. Classical Arabic Stories, An Anthropology. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. Print

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Personal Dilemma Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Personal Dilemma - Essay Example This put the workers at odds with her and people began to talk to each other at the office but no one seemed to be willing to talk to her about the situation. The environment became very toxic. I had a loyalty to the company but I also had a loyalty with her since she was not doing anything wrong according to the company policy. In fact, I sometimes found myself in agreement with her because there were times when the culture became too relaxed. However, other individuals within the company started talking about leaving and two people put in their notices mentioning that they were leaving because of their friction and incompatibility with the supervisor. The company executives took notice of the situation and called in a few people from our department to discuss what was happening. My supervisor had some inkling that this could happen and she had told all individually to not say anything which might cause trouble within the department. Essentially, I had to pick between being ethical by telling the truth or by going against her and putting her job at risk. I considered letting others take the lead when talking to the executives but I realized they might go too far in putting her down. Despite the situation I had been placed in, I told the executives about the real situation as honestly as I could. The result of our meeting with the company executives was that our supervisor was transferred to another section while we got a new boss. On a personal level, this incident made me realize that honesty is the best policy and it would be unethical to help our friends or even our superiors if it comes at the expense of others. Sometimes we have to make difficult decisions in order to make sure that the effect of the decision will have a net positive impact for the collective rather than a negative impact on the workings of the company. If that means that one

Friday, October 18, 2019

Assignment 9 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Assignment 9 - Coursework Example The company embraced diversity from the selection and recruitment process. All applicants were screened not withstanding their physical ability, education, religion, race, age, or cultural background (Erickson 01). All employees were treated equally during promotions and in the awarding of other fringe benefits. Moreover, the company had non-punitive policies that dealt with conflicts arising from employees with different backgrounds and points of view. Exclusive discriminatory groups were highly outlawed and the management momentously discouraged employees from forming such groups (Gröschl 68). Moreover, the company initiated an all-inclusive and wide-ranging employee-training program for its community and corporate employees. The program was named â€Å"Successful Community Living†. All employees were subjected to this program that promoted civility, respect and understanding among the employees and with the external community. Through the program, employees enthusiastically embraced and celebrated the presence of LGBT, albinos, physically challenged persons and the blacks in the organizational structure (Erickson 01). The program immensely contributed to the creation of a respectful, diversified but integrated workforce that ominously improved employees morale and consequently boosted the productivity and profitability of the organization. The company further augmented the training program by forming a â€Å"Diversity and Inclusion Council† that developed and implemented strategies that promoted the organization’s objectives in 4 major sections; resi dents, employees, CSR (corporate social responsibility) and marketplace initiatives. Members of the council are drawn from different heritages and were skilled in different aspects. Both the top and junior managers supported the council to guarantee its triumph. Holding combined dines was

Basketball requires as much skill, strength and effort as football Research Paper

Basketball requires as much skill, strength and effort as football - Research Paper Example Basketball game requires a lot of energy during the game. Just, like football, the time span for the game is long enough to require a sufficient amount of strength, to keep along. Therefore, the athletes take strength-building sections, which include hitting the gym. There are many benefits of strength training to athletic performance. Apart from being the integral component for power for athletes, it also improves performance in the case of pure endurance. Endurance is a key thing in basketball because of the many intense rounds that they have to play in a single match. Therefore, explosive power is not the major goal of strength training in athletes but endurance is (Ivey & Stoner 56). Basketball is majorly a game of wits and skills. Strength and body size are not enough to win a basketball game. In addition, the rules set to play a basket ball game are so intense that they require the players to be very skilled and high mastery of the game. For example, ball handling requires many skills since it is the major part of the game. An effective ball handler should keep the ball out of the opponent’s hand. However, the player in possessing of the ball cannot take more than two steps without dribbling the ball. The player will have to make some critical decisions, which determine the person and when to pass the ball during offensive attack. Thus, the game requires a lot of concentration and a clear mind that can make informed decisions at critical moments. Another critical area is in shooting at the basket. The basket is small enough thus requiring skills to enter the ball from near it or from a three-point range. This requires a keen eye coordination (Leboutilli er 5). Basketball is an effort work. The whole team needs to stick together through out the game and produce their best. The game requires hard work in the pitch to achieve their target. This is also the same in football where they have to

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Mainland china culture oriented market Research Paper

Mainland china culture oriented market - Research Paper Example Essentially, the diversity in culture is among the core aspects significant while a company puts interest in the global market; moreover, most business researchers and leaders put a lot of focus on this factor, as it is a core determiner of where a company stands in the international market. In some countries such as China and Japan, people buy products basing on the perception of a group i.e. people buy foodstuffs putting into consideration every member of the family: however, in the US and UK people purchase things according to their own opinion or preference (Fernanda 2009). This is among the main factors causing the difference in market approach and market plan i.e. States in Asia prefer collective advertising while the United States concentrates on individual advertising. The main cypher that relates to how the culture impacts, is the language which most states consider to signify vanity and a legacy; however, there are other symbols that matter just as much but this is the basis of how an organization approaches a certain market. This research paper focuses on mainland China as an emerging market; moreover, it analyses the difference between China based companies and others from the west evaluating the market plans and approach for the two. Most corporations in China have developed over the years as their businesses plans, strategies continue to become more refined and leaning more to the culture; however, this poses as a challenge to the companies in the western countries (Sin 2004). Most of these corporations that try to enter the international market fail because they overlook the cultural differences in mainland China and the only way out is to understand the diversities and exploit them through new marketing strategies that will be the foundation of the overall success in these markets. In an exploration of the Chinese’ market approach, its essential that one compares the dissimilar kinds of corporations and organizations

PEPFAR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

PEPFAR - Essay Example PEPFAR, the largest and most ambitions healthcare initiative in history came into being on January 1st, 2003. In response to ever-increasing concerns over the social, political and economic consequences of AID, the United States passed PEPFAR into public policy/legislature and declared a 15 billion dollar commitment to the policy. While PEPFAR is dedicated to the fight against AID as a global epidemic, its primary focus is upon the 15 countries which have the highest incident rates, those being Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, and Zambia. Public bill 108-25 outlines PEPFAR's aims and objectives, further establishing its mechanisms and strategies for service delivery. As clearly outlined in PB 108-25, PEPFAR's AID-combat philosophy is governed by the ABC principle, or the "Abstain, Be faithful, use Condoms" model, whose effectiveness has, since 1986, been established upon implementation in all of Uganda, Jamaica, Ethiopia and Senegal. PEPFAR's immediate objectives are the provision of Antiretroviral treatment to approximately 822,000 people living with HIV in the previously mentioned focus countries, expected to increase to 2 million, the extension of care to a total of 10 million and the prevention of approximately 7 million new infections

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Mainland china culture oriented market Research Paper

Mainland china culture oriented market - Research Paper Example Essentially, the diversity in culture is among the core aspects significant while a company puts interest in the global market; moreover, most business researchers and leaders put a lot of focus on this factor, as it is a core determiner of where a company stands in the international market. In some countries such as China and Japan, people buy products basing on the perception of a group i.e. people buy foodstuffs putting into consideration every member of the family: however, in the US and UK people purchase things according to their own opinion or preference (Fernanda 2009). This is among the main factors causing the difference in market approach and market plan i.e. States in Asia prefer collective advertising while the United States concentrates on individual advertising. The main cypher that relates to how the culture impacts, is the language which most states consider to signify vanity and a legacy; however, there are other symbols that matter just as much but this is the basis of how an organization approaches a certain market. This research paper focuses on mainland China as an emerging market; moreover, it analyses the difference between China based companies and others from the west evaluating the market plans and approach for the two. Most corporations in China have developed over the years as their businesses plans, strategies continue to become more refined and leaning more to the culture; however, this poses as a challenge to the companies in the western countries (Sin 2004). Most of these corporations that try to enter the international market fail because they overlook the cultural differences in mainland China and the only way out is to understand the diversities and exploit them through new marketing strategies that will be the foundation of the overall success in these markets. In an exploration of the Chinese’ market approach, its essential that one compares the dissimilar kinds of corporations and organizations

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Public behavior change message Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Public behavior change message - Research Paper Example Some of these attempts encourage behavior change while others do not. This entirely depends not only on the content but also on the skills in these messages (Browning & Thomas, 2005). Some of The behaviors are encouraged if constructed in terms of their benefits versus their costs. Other people respond to a message when individualized orshaped in a personal process. Communicating behavior change is different from any other instruction method because it targets groups in the community. The strategy used to communicate behavior varies from one group to another. It is reasonable to consider issues like vulnerability, resources message type when communicating behavior to certain groups. It is crucial to have an extensive research and a clear plan for successful communication of behavior change in a community. Various health problems are caused by risk behaviors such as reckless driving, drug abuse and overreacting. Health behavior research helps to modify and maintain positive health behaviors. Therefore, individuals should put an effort to maintain positive behavior change by self-regulation. Many behavior change programs have been established that focus on individuals and the community. Communicating behavior change is a good strategy for dealing with many problems in a community. It is an effective strategy for mobilizing the community on public health outreach programs (Browning & Thomas, 2005). Improved knowledge on behavior change has reduced transmission of HIV/AIDS in the community. Various health-promoting strategies use the communication as an educative method to the society. High-risk groups such as women, drugs abusers and youth need communication strategies. This article discusses strategies that mass media use in promoting beneficial behavior change among individuals. Mass media can be used to influence public behavior directly or indirectly. This is through directly targeting people suffering from public

History of Bareilly Essay Example for Free

History of Bareilly Essay The region has, also, acted as a mint for a major part of its history. From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is very rich. The extensive remains of Ahichhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichhatra (1940–44) that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in Ganga Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichhatra. It has also been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganga Valley. On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th c. AD. Some ancient mounds in the district have also been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera (Fatehganj West), Pachaumi, Rahtuia, Kadarganj and Sainthal. [2]

Monday, October 14, 2019

Adapting Materials For A Specific Context Education Essay

Adapting Materials For A Specific Context Education Essay Although most people associate language-learning materials with course books, in fact materials encompass a much wider scope. A very general definition would be that materials are anything that teachers and learners use to facilitate learning of a language. As well as course books this could encompass cassettes, videos, dictionaries, grammar books, newspapers, photographs, and much more (Tomlinson 1998). Added to this is the realisation that materials are not simply the mundane apparatus of the language teacher, they are a personification of the aims, values and methods of the particular teaching or learning situation (Hutchinson 1987). Therefore the selection of materials is probably the single most important decision that the language teacher has to make (Hutchinson 1987). With such a broad definition teacher produced materials will obviously play a role. However there are very few teachers who do not use published course materials at some stage in their career and the use of published materials is now more pervasive than ever before with the course book being at the centre (Littlejohn 1998, McDonough Shaw 2003). Although it is convenient to lump both teacher produced materials and commercially sponsored published course materials together there are in fact noteworthy differences pertaining to the circumstances under which they come to be written, produced and distributed. Customarily teacher produced materials are aimed at a more specified local audience, and commercially sponsored materials are for as wide an audience as possible (Dubin Olshtain 1986). Often the sheer time consuming feat of writing your own materials coupled with the reality that many teachers have little or no control over what course book and main materials will be selected leads to most teachers having to live with published materials selected by others (McDonough Shaw 2003). It is rare to find a perfect fit between learner needs and course requirements on the one hand and what the course book contains on the other. Every learning and teaching situation is unique and inimitable (Cunningsworth 1995). For this reason the option open to the teacher is to adapt and develop the materials. However before we can adapt and develop the materials we have to be able to evaluate the materials. Before we can change something we have to be clear about what we are changing (McDonough Shaw 2003). Teachers evaluations of course books and materials usually involves making general impressionistic judgements on materials based upon common assumptions and expectations. Some very common expectations of materials now are that they should achieve impact and have a noticeable effect on learners, help learners feel at ease, help develop learners confidence, and should be perceived by learners as being pertinent and useful. It has become common for materials to be expected to necessitate learners to make discoveries for themselves, expose learners to language in authentic use, entice attention to linguistic features of the input, recycle instruction, and present frequent and abundant exposure to the instructed language features in communicative use (Tomlinson 1998). It is also now highly desired that materials bear in mind that learners differ in learning styles and that learners inclination for a particular learning style is variable depending on what is being learned, where, with who, and for what. It is also hoped materials take into account that learners differ in affective and emotional attitudes (Tomlinson 1998). However a lot of these expectations are things that can mean different things for different groups of learners and teachers. For example achieving impact is variable in different places. What achieves impact in Brazil might not achieve impact in Germany, and what achieves impact in a private language school in Brazil might not achieve impact in a Brazilian high school. Often these expectations and assumptions about what is desirable, and others, such as up to date methodology, being foolproof, and containing realistic language, are all debateable. Is up to date a desirable characteristic in itself (Littlejohn 1998, Tomlinson 1998)? Teachers are also likely to focus less on the programme as a whole in their evaluation and more on whether specific activities and techniques appear to work in the context of a particular lesson (Ellis 1998). This combination of relying on general impressionistic judgements and concern with specific activities and techniques creates a type of micro evaluation that leads to a very eclectic type of adaptation. Rather to ensure a good match between what the course book includes and the requirements of the learning and teaching situation, and to avoid an eclectic approach to evaluation and adaptation teachers need to develop more methodical and potentially informative approaches creating a more in-depth evaluation of materials. (Cunningsworth 1995, Ellis 1998, Littlejohn 1998, Tomlinson 1998,). How do teachers begin a more in depth evaluation of teaching materials? Firstly by understanding that materials are indeed an embodiment of the aims, values and methods of the particular teaching and learning environment teachers can reflect over and analyse their knowledge, understanding and experience of how languages are learnt and should be taught. They can relate this to how near a match there is with the aims and values of the materials. This will lead teachers to be able to clearly state what they actually expect from their materials rather than regurgitating the latest buzzwords in the teaching industry. Teachers are then able to proceed from here and have a basis to analyse what materials contain and aspire to achieve, what materials make learners do while they are learning, how materials assume or even demand the teacher to teach learners in the classroom, and the appropriateness of the materials to the learners needs and interests (Breen Candlin 1987). This will enable us to build our evaluation of materials, and subsequently our adaptation, on the principles built upon our knowledge, understanding and experience of learning and teaching language. This evaluation helps cultivate insights into various views of language and learning and should be done against an environment of knowledge of our learners demands and the potential of the teaching situation (McDonough Shaw 2003). The subsequent stage is gathering as much information as feasible about the spirit and make-up of a course book (Hutchinson 1987). The information gathering of materials begins with what the materials say about themselves by probing the organization of the materials as stated explicitly by the author and publisher on the cover, and in the introduction and contents. Then what is actually presented inside the materials needs a thorough evaluation, and often the contents can be used as a conduit between the external claims and the reality inside (McDonough Shaw 2003). However as well as the importance of information gathering and analysis of the materials, the same is needed of the teaching and learning situation that the materials are required for. This is vital as materials evaluation is essentially a matching process in which the needs and assumptions of particular teaching-learning contexts are matched to available solutions (Hutchinson 1987). The teaching-learning situation and the classroom have a culture of their own. Culture is most commonly used in a very broad way to describe national culture, and there is often a prevailing cultural stimulus that may well be attributable to the wider society, governing for example, the rhythm and movement of classroom groups, and gender segregation. However there are also influences from institutional or professional-academic cultures, which dominate aspects of classroom cultures such as protocols and the formality of certain classroom events which therefore mean we need to be far more precise when we are talking about classroom culture (Holliday 1994). Classes will not have permanent membership, groups meet to carry out restricted and limited activities, the length of history is relatively short, and the culture only exists when the class is in session. Expectations are brought to the class that are built on other, previous classroom experiences (Holliday 1994). This in addition to different personalities and ethics that evolve in different classroom groups makes each classroom contain a unique culture. Cultures of individual classrooms are diffused to new members enabling both teachers and students to be equipped with inferred understandings about what sort of behaviour is acceptable, which they must learn and impart if they are to be fully received into the group. They assert a social force that prevents teachers from replicating their lesson agendas with different classroom groups. These understandings in turn are strengthened by common acceptance by peers (Holliday 1994) Habitually in the field of English language teaching there is frequent discord between the conventional and established interaction of the classroom and the innovation created by new language (Holliday 1994). Many teachers try to stimulate appropriate English teaching with students who are foreign to them, and try to understand their attitudes and ways of doing things, which to the outsider are obscure and unclear. Conversely teachers who are native to countries they work in, and of the same nationality as students they teach are repeatedly endeavouring to decipher methodologies cultivated and developed in the west for ideal teaching-learning situations. Ideal meaning different from the methodologies in their countries and particular teaching-learning situations (Holliday 1994). In some countries and contexts large classes are not necessarily indicative of scarce resources. Large classes might be tolerable where prevailing educational ideologies do not see the role of the teacher as a monitor and overseer of learning, but as a fount and spring of knowledge, which is delivered without any dispensation to students, and which students must exert great effort to attain. This leads to interesting observations in countries where this type of mentality holds sway such as Hollidays (1994) observation in Egypt of a newly graduated junior local lecturer. The local lecturer had undergone numerous hours of training in communicative English language teaching methodology from expatriate personnel and was supposed to be using a course book whose objectives were communicative teaching of pronunciation. The local lecturer was playing what she perceived to be the lecturer role very well. This was built on the basis of the local lecturers conviction that their responsibility s tretched to the extent of presenting the subject matter to their students, not as far as overseeing and administrating learning. Szulc-kurpaska (1992 as cited in Holliday1994) reports an interesting case in Poland of how discontent on the part of students arose pertaining to the degree of informality practised by expatriate lecturers both in and out of the classroom. Students became perplexed and apprehensive over hazy definitions of teacher and student (Holliday 1994). Here we must realise the importance of understanding each unique classroom culture and not trying to enforce an ideal teaching-learning situation in different contexts. What is important is that learning takes place. Unfortunately even taking into consideration that all learners, all teachers and all teaching situations are different, published materials have to treat them as if they were the same, commonly for commercial reasons (Maley 1998). Whether we like it or not any course book will directly or indirectly communicate collections of social and cultural morals and standards that are intrinsic in their make-up. This may be referred to as the hidden curriculum that will bring up issues of sexism, ethnic origin, occupation, age, social class, and disability (Cunningsworth 1995). Whether this is intended or not, it is a reality. Therefore the need to ensure a course book situates its material in the social and cultural contexts that are comprehensible, significant, appropriate and decipherable to learners, in terms of location, social mores and traditions, personal interests of learners, and age group is highly important (Breen Candlin 1987, Cunningsworth 1995). Often this can only be done by e valuation leading to adaptation. Lack of matching the teaching-learning situation to the materials leads to teachers returning from training programmes incapable of instigating what they have learnt, because it does not correspond to the conditions, needs and philosophies of their classrooms, institutions, and communities (Holliday 1994). In fact the materials become a constraint upon teachers sense of what may be appropriate at a given pedagogical moment, and on the autonomy and independence of teachers actions. The reality in the classroom is a trade off between materials, teachers, and learners (Maley 1998). If learners are to judge materials as legitimately offering them the prospect to develop their language knowledge and capabilities, the materials must take account of what learners perceive their needs to be, no matter how various and vague these perceptions may be (Breen Candlin 1987). Therefore information gathering and analysis of materials and the teaching-learning situation although without doubt can be driven by the teacher must include the input and feedback of learners. Especially in situations where the classroom culture is totally alien to the teacher they must be careful not to trample over the already set protocols and behaviours. Although classroom culture is open to large degrees of change, especially in the case of English language education which has supplied an abundance of new methodologies, it is largely conservative. When there is a lack of knowledge of the particular classroom culture, often on the part of the teacher, and a lack of input from the students, change can come that is too abrasive and disturbing. This develops into a crisis that leads to the closing of ranks within the classroom culture (Holliday 1994). Both the information gathering and analysis of the materials and the teaching-learning situation must be based on knowledge, feedb ack, experience, and negotiated learning objectives. This will enable the reduction of wasted time and effort and result in clear pinpointing of the steps which compel attention in the continuous process of evaluation (Bolitho Jolly 1998). The evaluation process is never static, when materials are considered suitable for a particular course after a preliminary evaluation, their ultimate success or failure may only be ascertained after a certain amount of classroom use (McDonough Shaw 2003). Therefore materials whether they are for publication or a teachers next lesson need to be persistently and incessantly evaluated and revised. Ideally materials need to be monitored by authors, other experts not involved in the writing team, and by representative users of the material such as teachers and learners (Tomlinson 1998). A pooled evaluation effort such as this can develop awareness in a number of ways. It obliges teachers to analyse their own presuppositions as to the nature of language and learning. With the almost certain reality that there will be a variance between the various materials that are available for evaluation it forces teachers to establish their priorities, and helps teachers to see materials as an integra l part of the whole teaching and learning situation (Hutchinson 1987). It must be stated that evaluation takes on a wider and more extensive role than merely evaluating to be able to adapt and develop materials by teachers. There is an increased concern for management macro evaluation of programmes and projects, carried out for accountability and developmental purposes and rationales by accumulating information relating to various administrative and curricular aspects and features of the programme. Educational decision makers formulate policy and work out strategies for budgeting and purchasing and therefore teachers do not always have direct involvement. At best they may be invited to make suggestions and comments (Ellis 1998, McDonough Shaw 2003). Such an approach to evaluation is not in concurrence with the perspective that many teachers have about what evaluation involves (Ellis 1998). There is a strong relationship and connection between evaluation and adaptation. Adaptation is a process subsequent to, and dependent on evaluation (McDonough Shaw 2003). Moving from the evaluation of materials and the teaching-learning situation in to the practical aspect of actually adapting the materials teachers will need to consider both external and internal factors. External factors are dynamics such as the characteristics of particular teaching situations, and content, organization, and consistency of the materials being an example of internal factors. To adapt materials is to endeavour to bring together these elements. Just as materials evaluation is a matching process so too is adaptation of materials. A good teacher is persistently striving for congruence and correspondence among materials, methodology, students, and course objectives. The teacher must satisfy the demands of the textbook but in ways that will be satisfying to those who learn from it by matching. Therefore maximising the appropriateness of the teaching materials in the particular teaching-learning context at hand (McDonough Shaw 2003). With evaluation of materials often constructed and fostered upon very impressionistic general judgements, teachers first steps in materials adaptation will also frequently be based on very vague motives and rationales leading to haphazard eclectic adaptation. Teachers will sometimes give the textbook a rest. The songs and games on a wet Friday afternoon are familiar to all teachers. However these dont have to remain part of a chaotic adaptation method. Rather they can be built into teaching in a principled way (Maley 1998). This means returning to our understanding of the underlying principles that evaluation of materials is based upon and subsequently looking at what adapting of materials actually involves. What must be noted is that this doesnt automatically mean adaptation has to continually be a rather formal process, although it often is. Rather, it can also be transitory. A teacher instantly rephrases a textbook elucidation of a language feature and so adapts. A good teacher is constantly adapting whether formally or informally (McDonough Shaw 2003). Therefore adaptation can be quantitative, by altering the amount, or qualitative by altering the methodological nature. This can be done using an assortment of techniques or a single technique applied to different content sections such as leaving out, adding, replacing, and changing. Materials may require adapting because they are not ideal in areas such as methods, language content, subject matter, balance of skills, progression and grading, cultural content, or image (Cunningsworth 1995). All of this must be done within a framework of gauging what materials contain against the requirements of a particular teaching environment and being sensitive to students interests, learning styles and motivation (Cunningsworth 1995, McDonough Shaw 2003). We can add to materials by supplementing them. More is put into them by extending or expanding. Materials are extended when we add more of the same, such as further grammar exercises if the grammar point being studied is difficult. By expanding we actually add to the methodology by moving outside it and developing it in novel directions. Also additions can be made before a language point appears in the framework of the book (McDonough Shaw 2003). Leaving out material is the other side of the same coin from addition. Generally subtracting does not have a significant impact on the overall methodology (McDonough Shaw 2003). Often using other published general course books or our own material for supplementary options is unsuitable. However there are numerous books that focus on skills. These afford a simple option to find exercises at a lower or higher level than the regular course book being used. For example, some general courses do not cover pronunciation as comprehensively or systematically as is necessary. Supplementary pronunciation books can fill in the gap. Usually vocabulary is covered more fully in modern books however there is still scope for supplementary vocabulary learning materials. Most books cover grammar meticulously, but there are still occasions when additional grammar work is needed, or an alternative approach (Cunningsworth 1995). Often the reasons why more pronunciation, vocabulary, or grammar is needed are the particular culture of that institution, managerial influences and teacher perceptions as well as the perceived needs of the students. The teacher has to take consideration of all of these to be successful. In my particular experience of teaching in Saudi Arabia the perceived importance and need for exhaustive grammar teaching, that was an influence of the culture of the institute, students, and the wider academic culture in Saudi Arabia, led me to adapt my teaching materials by supplementing the regular course book with grammar exercises from a well known grammar book (See Appendix 1, 2, 3). As a new teacher presented with the challenge of supplementing just because grammar was needed without any questioning I adapted in an extremely eclectic style without any worthwhile evaluation. A return to teaching will provide me with the opportunity to base my evaluation and adaptation on my understandings of teaching and learning and very importantly the context of the teaching-learning situation. Where we can usually make a noteworthy impression on the materials is by changing or modifying. Teachers can effect internal change in the style or focus of an exercise or other piece of material by rewriting when some of the linguistic content needs amendment. A prime example would be relating activities directly to learners backgrounds and interests (McDonough Shaw 2003). We could take a clearly mechanical, pre-communicative activity such as a drill and utilize the idea behind it by making the interaction more genuine and communicative by personalizing the content whilst keeping focus on structure and using authentic content. The important thing is to learn what students are interested in and build on that, showing that the English lesson is not just about English, but is about all aspects of life (Cunningsworth 1995). Restructuring involves classroom management, as in the case of when materials contain role-play for groups of a certain size and the class is too big. We can use si mplification by rephrasing instructions, explanation, or even the visual layout. Obviously there are repercussions and implications for simplification, such as the possibility that any linguistic change will have corresponding stylistic effects and therefore change the meaning or intention of the original text (McDonough Shaw 2003). As well as adapting by adding, taking away, or modifying we can transform the way the content of the materials is presented. Teachers can reorder by putting parts of a course book in a different order. For example we can adjust the sequence of presentation within a unit, or put units in a different sequence. We may do this in circumstances where the teaching programme is too short to work systematically through the book (McDonough Shaw 2003). Obviously there are patent areas of overlap among the various techniques that can be employed in adaptation. At one end adaptation is a practical activity carried out mainly by teachers to make their work more relevant to learners, however it is directly and indirectly related to a wider array of professional concerns such as administration and management of education. Adapting is one consequence of setting of objectives in a particular educational context and can only be executed effectively if it develops from understanding of possible design features of syllabuses and materials (McDonough Shaw 2003). We must be circumspect of becoming enslaved to course books. Rather course books are best seen as a resource in realizing aims and objectives that have already been fixed in terms of learner needs. They should not determine objectives themselves or become the aims. The concern must be with teaching language and not the textbook. The course book should be at the service of teachers and learners and not their master (Cunningsworth 1995). However we must strike a balance and not fall into dismissing all course books of being devoid of any value. The need to adapt does not necessarily entail that a course book is defective (Tomlinson 1998). We have to realise the entire arena of evaluation and adaptation is about matching between materials and the teaching-learning situation, basing this on our understanding and knowledge of teaching, learning and the context. Therefore the possible and inevitable areas of mismatch often can be dealt with by adaptation rather than abandoning the material s available (Tomlinson 1998). APPENDIX 1 Taken from: Headway, a typical EFL course book. The presentation of the grammar point here is not considered in depth enough and so the need to supplement. APPENDIX 2 Taken from: English Grammar In Use, a popular grammar skills book. Present the same grammar point to students as we studied in course book but with some more detail. APPENDIX 3 Taken from: English Grammar In Use. Present these additional exercises to the students usually by writing questions on the board. The students copy questions and complete with answers.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Looking Into the Past in Vonneguts Slaughter House-Five Essay

Looking Into the Past in Vonnegut's Slaughter House-Five In the spring of 1945, near the end of World War II, American and British bombers rained a hail of fire upon the city of Dresden, Germany. With an estimated 135,000 dead, Dresden is known as one of the deadliest attacks in History, nearly twice as many deaths than the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Kurt Vonnegut was among the few who lived through the firestorm; he wrote a book about it in fact. Slaughter House-Five (1969) is a fictional recount of his experience of the war. Many of the events (at least the parts set in WWII) are real experiences of Kurt. The people in the war are, for the most part, real; Vonnegut just changes all the names. The main character, however does not seem to have been a real person, and has a very unusual war experience. The story begins with Billy Pilgrim becoming "unstuck in time." Throughout the novel, Billy time travels to different times in his life. He's never sure where he'll go next, but he always returns to WWII, which is the main plot line. After Billy's life summary, which actually summarizes many of the events of the novel, the story jumps to when Billy first became "unstuck in time": 1944. Billy is a chaplain's assistant in the army during WWII, and is called oversees after the death of a chaplain's assistant in Europe. He is sent to his regiment during their involvement in the Battle of the Bulge; they do not win. Not being much of a military man, Billy Pilgrim wanders behind German lines until he meets three other American soldiers. After many near deaths, Billy is captured by the Germans and taken to a prisoner camp. While on his way to the camp Billy travels to 1967, the year he is abducted by a flying saucer from Tralfam... ...azy from a lack of water. "When Billy saw the condition of [the horses], he burst into tears. He hadn't cried about anything else in the war" (197). Even during other parts of his life "Billy cried very little, though he often saw things worth crying about" (197). People seem to lose their sense of compassion for life. We often treat animals as inferior emotionless creatures, and in war, we kill other humans for things that really require no killing. By reading Vonnegut's look into the past, hopefully we can learn from our mistakes. I could never find a good reason for killing 135,000 people, most of them civilians. To try for world peace is a nearly impossible task. However, we may be able to look into history and find better ways to deal with our disagreements than killing. Work Cited Vonnegut, Kurt. Slaughter House-Five. New York: Dell Publishing, 1991.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Philosophy for a Society in this Day and Age of Virtual Reality :: Philosophy Philosophical essays

Philosophy for a Society in this Day and Age of Virtual Reality ABSTRACT: Virtual reality is more than only high tech. We encounter this phenomenon in everyday media worlds and economy. The sign dominates the signed. Philosophy can describe this phenomenon by means of a different ontological analysis following Poppers theory of the three worlds and can prepare new ontological categories for knowledge of acting. After twenty minutes the test person seems to be absent. With a cyberhelmet on his head he looks around the virtual room. Whereever he looks, he faces a computer landscape from every perspective. The hand in the cyberspace glove gropes for its way like in a vacuum space. But it touches the things which cross the way. The test person is located in the middle of a virtual world. In the room, where the computer is located, other people wait for the test. If the topic is virtual reality, scenes like described above are associated: High tech cyberspace on fast parallel comuters - if possible with a complete datasuit that allows to immerse almost completely into artificial worlds -, hovering through space, digital labyrinths and yet not built houses. But this examples only describes the tip of the iceberg. Under the watersurface of the extraordinary there is a wide ranging phenomenon of virtual realities: The economy with its big companies, transfers capital and networks dissolves to virtual entities. People get lost in entertainment in virtual landscapes and make friends via chatting. Scientists investigate phenomena of nature by reconstructed simulation and practicians design the future by a CAD program. People order pizza by internet, they flirt, make business, take journeys, join further education or talk with a coach. There is a virtualisation of the whole being. The classical differenciation between appearance and reality becomes blured. The simulation, in which people can walk around, is not fictive. It is not pure imagination, but something realized. It is reality although it is virtual. Economy makes it clear: Money and Capital are virtual entities. They determine our everyday life and they often decide about prosperity and poverty. The autonomy of virtual reality is even growing while gathering momentum. A computer simulation for example generates itself without external influence. That could be compared with numerous experiments with cellular machines (Herber P. Franke, Das P-Prinzip. Naturgesetzt im rechnenden Raum, Frankfurt am Main 1995). But also media worlds have their own dynamic. Tv world news and ezines do not only report, but create own realities.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Career and Philanthropic Work of Magic Johnson

Earvin â€Å"Magic† Johnson is not only amongst the all-time greatest basketball players, but he is also a well-respected philanthropist. This essay discusses his early career, major career achievements, being diagnosed with AIDS, and philanthropic work. Magic Johnson’s glorious basketball career began as a student at the Michigan State University. He led the team to a National Championship title in 1979. Johnson’s skill qualified him to play at the National Basketball Association (NBA). While playing with the Lakers, the team won five NBA championships and participated in nine NBA finals. He was honored by being named the NBA Most Valuable Player three times. Johnson also played on the U. S. A. Olympic team that won the gold medal in the year 1992. In 2002, he was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame. He was particularly known for his excellent passing skills. Johnson’s match winning performance in the 1980 NBA finals is an integral part of basketball history. He received several honors including being selected as a member of the All-Time team for NBA’s 50th anniversary in 1997 (NBA Encyclopedia). On October 25, 1991, his doctors told Johnson that he had the HIV virus. Says Johnson, â€Å"That was the hardest day of my life. After I got myself off the ground, I decided to have a positive attitude (NBA Legend).† Two weeks later, on November 7, 1991, Johnson announced to the world at a press conference organized by the Lakers about his affliction. At the conference, he said that he would not give up to the disease easily and would battle it. He announced that he would become a spokesman about HIV. As the doctors had advised him not to play basketball any longer, Johnson announced his retirement from basketball. Johnson decided that he would use his fame and his status as an icon for millions of people to educate the youth about HIV. One month after his diagnosis, he started the Magic Johnson Foundation. According to a research conducted by Pollock (426), the revelation of Magic Johnson had changed the attitude of people about AIDS and influenced them to alter their behavior in order to avoid the virus. The foundation has raised millions of dollars to build four modern clinics for people afflicted with AIDS. Free HIV/AIDS testing has been provided to approximately 38,000 people across America through the â€Å"I Stand with Magic† program. The foundation has helped nearly 280,000 people understand the risk factors of contacting HIV. The foundation also provides educational and medical help to children and young adults. The foundation has opened 20 Community Empowerment Centers in underserved communities (Magic Johnson Foundations). When Hurricane Katrina occurred, the foundation partnered with various grocery and drugstores, provided prescriptions and groceries to victims. The renowned basketball player also stated that he would find ways to generate jobs to those who have been displaced by Katrina (Tucker 1). Magic Johnson received the USA Today’s National Hero Award for his contribution to the society through the Magic Johnson Foundation. Magic Johnson is also an active businessman. He runs a company called Magic Johnson Enterprises (MJE). MJE has several businesses in its portfolio, which include Canyon-Johnson Urban Fund, SodexhoMagic, Aetna, and BestBuy, 30 Burger King restaurants, Magic Johnson Theaters, and a dozen sports centers. The company aims to provide products and services to ethnically diverse communities and minorities (Earvin â€Å"Magic† Johnson Biography). Even after 17 years of being diagnosed with HIV, he has not developed AIDS. Magic Johnson can be called a self-made success story and a great sportsman and social worker who has selflessly used his iconic status to help countless people lead a better life. Work Cited About the Foundation. Magic Johnson Foundation. 10 May 2008 Earvin â€Å"Magic† Johnson Biography. Magic Johnson Foundation. 12 May 2008 NBA Encyclopedia. NBA Media Ventures. 9 May 2008 NBA legend â€Å"Magic† Johnson delights CU crowd. (February 1998). Cornell Chronicle. 12 May 2008 Pollock III, Philip H. â€Å"Issues, values, and critical moments: Did `Magic' Johnson transform public opinion on AIDS?† American Journal of Political Science 38 (1994): 426. Tucker, Laura. â€Å"Business Hero: Magic Johnson.† 5 May 2008 ;;.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

The Twilight Saga 5: Midnight Sun 4. Visions

I went back to school. This was the right thing to do, the most inconspicuous way to behave. By the end of the day, almost all the other students had returned to class, too. Just Tyler and Bella and a few others – who were probably using the accident as a chance to ditch – remained absent. It shouldn't be so hard for me to do the right thing. But, all afternoon, I was gritting my teeth against the urge that had me yearning ditch, too – in order to go find the girl again. Like a stalker. An obsessessed stalker. An obsessessed, vampire stalker. School today was – somehow, impossibly – even more boring than it had seemed just a week ago. Coma-like. It was as if the color had drained from the bricks, the trees, the sky, the faces around me†¦ I stared at the cracks in the walls. There was another right thing I should be doing†¦that I was not. Of course, it was also a wrong thing. It all depended on the perspective from which you viewed it. From the perspective of a Cullen – not just a vampire, but a Cullen, someone who belonged to a family, such a rare state in our world – the right thing to do would have gone something like this: â€Å"I'm surprised to see you in class, Edward. I heard you were involved in that awful accident this morning.† â€Å"Yes, I was, Mr. Banner, but I was the lucky one.† A friendly smile. â€Å"I didn't get hurt at all†¦ I wish I could say the same for Tyler and Bella.† â€Å"How are they?† â€Å"I think Tyler is fine†¦just some superficial scrapes from the windshield glass. I'm not sure about Bella, though.† A worried frown. â€Å"She might have a concussion. I heard she was pretty incoherent for a while – seeing things even. I know the doctors were worried†¦Ã¢â‚¬  That's how it should have gone. That's what I owed my family. â€Å"I'm surprised to see you in class, Edward. I heard you were involved in that awful accident this morning.† â€Å"I wasn't hurt.† No smile. Mr. Banner shifted his weight from foot to foot, uncomfortable. â€Å"Do you have any idea how Tyler Crowley and Bella Swan are? I heard there were some injuries†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I shrugged. â€Å"I wouldn't know.† Mr. Banner cleared his throat. â€Å"Er, right†¦Ã¢â‚¬  he said, my cold stare making his voice sound a bit strained. He walked quickly back to the front of classroom and began his lecture. It was the wrong thing to do. Unless you looked at it from a more obscure point of view. It just seemed so†¦so unchivalrous to slander the girl behind her back, especially when she was proving more trustworthy than I could have dreamed. She hadn't said anything to betray me, despite having good reason to do so. Would I betray her when she had done nothing but keep my secret? I had a nearly identical conversation with Mrs. Goff – just in Spanish rather than in English – and Emmett gave me a long look. I hope you have a good explanation for what happened today. Rose is on the warpath. I rolled my eyes without looking at him. I actually had come up with a perfectly sound explanation. Just suppose I hadn't done anything to stop the van from crushing the girl†¦ I recoiled from that thought. But if she had been hit, if she'd been mangled and bleeding, the red fluid spilling, wasting on the blacktop, the scent of the fresh blood pulsing through the air †¦ I shuddered again, but not just in horror. Part of me shivered in desire. No, I would not have been able to watch her bleed without exposing us all in a much more flagrant and shocking way. It was a perfectly sound excuse†¦but I wouldn't use it. It was too shameful. And I hadn't thought of it until long after the fact, regardless. Look out for Jasper, Emmett went on, oblivious to my reverie. He's not as angry†¦but he's more resolved. I saw what he meant, and for a moment the room swam around me. My rage was so all-consuming that a red haze clouded my vision. I thought I would choke on it. SHEESH, EDWARD! GET A GRIP! Emmett shouted at me in his head. His hand came down on my shoulder, holding me in my seat before I could jump to my feet. He rarely used his full strength – there was rarely a need, for he was so much stronger than any vampire any of us had ever encountered – but he used it now. He gripped my arm, rather than pushing me down. If he'd been pushing, the chair under me would have collapsed. EASY! He ordered. I tried to calm myself, but it was hard. The rage burned in my head. Jasper's not going to do anything until we all talk. I just thought you should know the direction he's headed. I concentrated on relaxing, and I felt Emmett's hand loosen. Try not to make more of a spectacle of yourself. You're in enough trouble as it is. I took a deep breath and Emmett released me. I searched around the room routinely, but our confrontation had been so short and silent that only a few people sitting behind Emmett had even noticed. None of them knew what to make of it, and they shrugged it off. The Cullens were freaks – everyone knew that already. Damn, kid, you're a mess, Emmett added, sympathy in his tone. â€Å"Bite me,† I muttered under my breath, and I heard his low chuckle. Emmett didn't hold grudges, and I probably ought to be more grateful for his easy going nature. But I could see that Jasper's intentions made sense to Emmett, that he was considering how it might be the best course of action. The rage simmered, barely under control. Yes, Emmett was stronger than I was, but he'd yet to beat me in a wrestling match. He claimed that this was because I cheated, but hearing thoughts was just as much a part of who I was as his immense strength was a part of him. We were evenly matched in a fight. A fight? Was that where this was headed? Was I going to fight with my family over a human I barely knew? I thought about that for a moment, thought about the fragile feel of the girl's body in my arms in juxtaposition with Jasper, Rose, and Emmett – supernaturally strong and fast, killing machines by nature†¦ Yes, I would fight for her. Against my family. I shuddered. But it wasn't fair to leave her undefended when I was the one who'd put her in danger. I couldn't win alone, though, not against the three of them, and I wondered who my allies would be. Carlisle, certainly. He would not fight anyone, but he would be wholly against Rose's and Jasper's designs. That might be all I needed. I would see†¦ Esme, doubtful. She would not side against me either, and she would hate to disagree with Carlisle, but she would be for any plan that kept her family intact. Her first priority would not be rightness, but me. If Carlisle was the soul of our family, then Esme was the heart. He gave us a leader who deserved following; she made that following into an act of love. We all loved each other – even under the fury I felt toward Jasper and Rose right now, even planning to fight them to save the girl, I knew that I loved them. Alice†¦I had no idea. It would probably depend on what she saw coming. She would side with the winner, I imagined. So, I would have to do this without help. I wasn't a match for them alone, but I wasn't going to let the girl be hurt because of me. That might mean evasive action†¦ My rage dulled a bit with the sudden, black humor. I could imagine how the girl would react to my kidnapping her. Of course, I rarely guessed her reactions right – but what other reaction could she have besides terror? I wasn't sure how to manage that, though – kidnapping her. I wouldn't be able to stand being close to her for very long. Perhaps I would just deliver her back to her mother. Even that much would be fraught with danger. For her. And also for me, I realized suddenly. If I were to kill her by accident†¦ I wasn't certain exactly how much pain that would cause me, but I knew it would be multifaceted and intense. The time passed quickly while I mulled over all the complications ahead of me: the argument waiting for me at home, the conflict with my family, the lengths I might be forced to go to afterward†¦ Well, I couldn't complain that life outside this school was monotonous any more. The girl had changed that much. Emmett and I walked silently to the car when the bell rang. He was worrying about me, and worrying about Rosalie. He knew whose side he would have to choose in a quarrel, and it bothered him. The others were waiting for us in the car, also silent. We were a very quiet group. Only I could hear the shouting. Idiot! Lunatic! Moron! Jackass! Selfish, irresponsible fool! Rosalie kept up a constant stream of insults at the top of her mental lungs. It made it hard to hear the others, but I ignored her as best I could. Emmett was right about Jasper. He was sure of his course. Alice was troubled, worrying about Jasper, flipping through images of the future. No matter which direction Jasper came at the girl, Alice always saw me there, blocking him. Interesting†¦neither Rosalie nor Emmett was with him in these visions. So Jasper planned to work alone. That would even things up. Jasper was the best, certainly the most experienced fighter among us. My one advantage lay in that I could hear his moves before he made them. I had never fought more than playfully with Emmett or Jasper – just horsing around. I felt sick at the thought of really trying to hurt Jasper†¦ No, not that. Just to block him. That was all. I concentrated on Alice, memorizing Jasper's different avenues of attack. As I did that, her visions shifted, moving further and further away from the Swan's house. I was cutting him off earlier†¦ Stop that, Edward! It can't happen this way. I won't let it. I didn't answer her, I just kept watching. She began searching farther ahead, into the misty, unsure realm of distant possibilities. Everything was shadowy and vague. The entire way home, the charged silence did not lift. I parked in the big garage off the house; Carlisle's Mercedes was there, next to Emmett's big jeep, Rose's M3 and my Vanquish. I was glad Carlisle was already home – this silence would end explosively, and I wanted him there when that happened. We went straight to the dining room. The room was, of course, never used for its intended purpose. But it was furnished with a long oval mahogany table surrounded by chairs – we were scrupulous about having all the correct props in place. Carlisle liked to use it as a conference room. In a group with such strong and disparate personalities, sometimes it was necessary to discuss things in a calm, seated manner. I had a feeling that the setting was not going to help much today. Carlisle sat in his usual seat at the eastern head of the room. Esme was beside him – they held hands on top of the table. Esme's eyes were on me, their golden depths full of concern. Stay. It was her only thought. I wished I could smile at the woman who was truly a mother to me, but I had no reassurances for her now. I sat on Carlisle's other side. Esme reached around him to put her free hand on my shoulder. She had no idea of what was about to start; she was just worrying about me. Carlisle had a better sense of what was coming. His lips were pressed tightly together and his forehead was creased. The expression looked too old for his young face. As everyone else sat, I could see the lines being drawn. Rosalie sat directly across from Carlisle, on the other end of the long table. She glared at me, never looking away. Emmett sat beside her, his face and thoughts both wry. Jasper hesitated, and then went to stand against the wall behind Rosalie. He was decided, regardless of the outcome of this discussion. My teeth locked together. Alice was the last to come in, and her eyes were focused on something far away – the future, still too indistinct for her to make use of it. Without seeming to think about it, she sat next to Esme. She rubbed her forehead as if she had a headache. Jasper twitched uneasily and considered joining her, but he kept his place. I took a deep breath. I had started this – I should speak first. â€Å"I'm sorry,† I said, looking first at Rose, then Jasper and then Emmett. â€Å"I didn't mean to put any of you at risk. It was thoughtless, and I take full responsibility for my hasty action.† Rosalie glared at me balefully. â€Å"What do you mean, take full responsibility'? Are you going to fix it?† â€Å"Not the way you mean,† I said, working to keep my voice even and quiet. â€Å"I'm willing to leave now, if that makes things better.† If I believe that the girl will be safe, if I believe that none of you will touch her, I amended in my head. â€Å"No,† Esme murmured. â€Å"No, Edward.† I patted her hand. â€Å"It's just a few years.† â€Å"Esme's right, though,† Emmett said. â€Å"You can't go anywhere now. That would be the opposite of helpful. We have to know what people are thinking, now more than ever.† â€Å"Alice will catch anything major,† I disagreed. Carlisle shook his head. â€Å"I think Emmett is right, Edward. The girl will be more likely to talk if you disappear. It's all of us leave, or none of us.† â€Å"She won't say anything,† I insisted quickly. Rose was building up to the explosion, and I wanted this fact out there first. â€Å"You don't know her mind,† Carlisle reminded me. â€Å"I know this much. Alice, back me up.† Alice stared up at me wearily. â€Å"I can't see what will happen if we just ignore this.† She glanced at Rose and Jasper. No, she couldn't see that future – not when Rosalie and Jasper were so decided against ignoring the incident. Rosalie's palm smacked down on the table with a loud bang. â€Å"We can't allow the human a chance to say anything. Carlisle, you must see that. Even if we decided to all disappear, it's not safe to leave stories behind us. We live so differently from the rest of our kind – you know there are those who would love an excuse to point fingers. We have to be more careful than anyone else!† â€Å"We've left rumors behind us before,† I reminded her. â€Å"Just rumors and suspicions, Edward. Not eyewitnesses and evidence!† â€Å"Evidence!† I scoffed. But Jasper was nodding, his eyes hard. â€Å"Rose – † Carlisle began. â€Å"Let me finish, Carlisle. It doesn't have to be any big production. The girl hit her head today. So maybe that injury turns out to be more serious that it looked.† Rosalie shrugged. â€Å"Every mortal goes to sleep with the chance of never waking up. The others would expect us to clean up after ourselves. Technically, that would make it Edward's job, but this is obviously beyond him. You know I'm capable of control. I would leave no evidence behind me.† â€Å"Yes, Rosalie, we all know how proficient an assassin you are,† I snarled. She hissed at me, furious. â€Å"Edward, please,† Carlisle said. Then he turned to Rosalie. â€Å"Rosalie, I looked the other way in Rochester because I felt that you were owed your justice. The men you killed had wronged you monstrously. This is not the same situation. The Swan girl is an innocent.† â€Å"It's not personal, Carlisle,† Rosalie said through her teeth. â€Å"It's to protect us all.† There was a brief moment of silence while Carlisle thought through his answer. When he nodded, Rosalie's eyes lit up. She should have known better. Even if I hadn't been able to read his thoughts, I could have anticipated his next words. Carlisle never compromised. â€Å"I know you mean well, Rosalie, but†¦I'd like very much for our family to be worth protecting. The occasional†¦accident or lapse in control is a regrettable part of who we are.† It was very like him to include himself in the plural, though he had never had such a lapse himself. â€Å"To murder a blameless child in cold blood is another thing entirely. I believe the risk she presents, whether she speaks her suspicions or not, is nothing to the greater risk. If we make exceptions to protect ourselves, we risk something much more important. We risk losing the essence of who we are.† I controlled my expression very carefully. It wouldn't do at all to grin. Or to applaud, as I wished I could. Rosalie scowled. â€Å"It's just being responsible.† â€Å"It's being callous,† Carlisle corrected gently. â€Å"Every life is precious.† Rosalie sighed heavily and her lower lip pouted out. Emmett patted her shoulder. â€Å"It'll be fine, Rose,† he encouraged in a low voice. â€Å"The question,† Carlisle continued, â€Å"is whether we should move on?† â€Å"No,† Rosalie moaned. â€Å"We just got settled. I don't want to start on my sophomore year in high school again!† â€Å"You could keep your present age, of course,† Carlisle said. â€Å"And have to move again that much sooner?† she countered. Carlisle shrugged. â€Å"I like it here! There's so little sun, we get to be almost normal.† â€Å"Well, we certainly don't have to decide now. We can wait and see if it becomes necessary. Edward seems certain of the Swan girl's silence.† Rosalie snorted. But I was no longer worried about Rose. I could see that she would go along with Carlisle's decision, not matter how infuriated she was with me. Their conversation had moved on to unimportant details. Jasper remained unmoved. I understood why. Before he and Alice had met, he'd lived in a combat zone, a relentless theater of war. He knew the consequences of flouting the rules – he'd seen the grisly aftermath with his own eyes. It said much that he had not tried to calm Rosalie down with his extra faculties, nor did he now try to rile her up. He was holding himself aloof from this discussion – above it. â€Å"Jasper,† I said. He met my gaze, his face expressionless. â€Å"She won't pay for my mistake. I won't allow that.† â€Å"She benefits from it, then? She should have died today, Edward. I would only set that right.† I repeated myself, emphasizing each word. â€Å"I will not allow it.† His eyebrows shot up. He wasn't expecting this – he hadn't imagined that I would act to stop him. He shook his head once. â€Å"I won't let Alice live in danger, even a slight danger. You don't feel about anyone the way I feel about her, Edward, and you haven't lived through what I've lived through, whether you've seen my memories or not. You don't understand.† â€Å"I'm not disputing that, Jasper. But I'm telling you now, I won't allow you to hurt Isabella Swan.† We stared at each other – not glaring, but measuring the opposition. I felt him sample the mood around me, testing my determination. â€Å"Jazz,† Alice said, interrupting us. He held my gaze for a moment more, and then looked at her. â€Å"Don't bother telling me you can protect yourself, Alice. I already know that. I've still got to – † â€Å"That's not what I'm going say,† Alice interrupted. â€Å"I was going to ask you for a favor.† I saw what was on her mind, and my mouth fell open with an audible gasp. I stared at her, shocked, only vaguely aware that everyone besides Alice and Jasper was now eyeing me warily. â€Å"I know you love me. Thanks. But I would really appreciate it if you didn't try to kill Bella. First of all, Edward's serious and I don't want you two fighting. Secondly, she's my friend. At least, she's going to be.† It was clear as glass in her head: Alice, smiling, with her icy white arm around the girl's warm, fragile shoulders. And Bella was smiling, too, her arm around Alice's waist. The vision was rock solid; only the timing of it was unsure. â€Å"But†¦Alice†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Jasper gasped. I couldn't manage to turn my head to see his expression. I couldn't tear myself away from the image in Alice's head in order to hear his. â€Å"I'm going to love her someday, Jazz. I'll be very put out with you if you don't let her be.† I was still locked into Alice's thoughts. I saw the future shimmer as Jasper's resolve floundered in the face of her unexpected request. â€Å"Ah,† she sighed – his indecision had cleared a new future. â€Å"See? Bella's not going to say anything. There's nothing to worry about.† The way she said the girl's name†¦like they were already close confidants†¦ â€Å"Alice,† I choked. â€Å"What†¦does this†¦?† â€Å"I told you there was a change coming. I don't know, Edward.† But she locked her jaw, and I could see that there was more. She was trying not to think about it; she was focusing very hard on Jasper suddenly, though he was too stunned to have progressed much in his decision making. She did this sometimes when she was trying to keep something from me. â€Å"What, Alice? What are you hiding?† I heard Emmett grumble. He always got frustrated when Alice and I had these kinds of conversations. She shook her head, trying to not let me in. â€Å"Is it about the girl?† I demanded. â€Å"Is it about Bella?† She had her teeth gritted in concentration, but when I spoke Bella's name, she slipped. Her slip only lasted the tiniest portion of a second, but that was long enough. â€Å"NO!† I shouted. I heard my chair hit the floor, and only then realized I was on my feet. â€Å"Edward!† Carlisle was on his feet, too, his arm on my shoulder. I was barely aware of him. â€Å"It's solidifying,† Alice whispered. â€Å"Every minute you're more decided. There're really only two ways left for her. It's one or the other, Edward.† I could see what she saw†¦but I could not accept it. â€Å"No,† I said again; there was no volume to my denial. My legs felt hollow, and I had to brace myself against the table. â€Å"Will somebody please let the rest of us in on the mystery?† Emmett complained. â€Å"I have to leave,† I whispered to Alice, ignoring him. â€Å"Edward, we've already been over that,† Emmett said loudly. â€Å"That's the best way to start the girl talking. Besides, if you take off, we won't know for sure if she's talking or not. You have to stay and deal with this.† â€Å"I don't see you going anywhere, Edward,† Alice told me. â€Å"I don't know if you can leave anymore.† Think about it, she added silently. Think about leaving. I saw what she meant. Yes, the idea of never seeing the girl again was†¦painful. But it was also necessary. I couldn't sanction either future I'd apparently condemned her to. I'm not entirely sure of Jasper, Edward, Alice went on. If you leave, if he thinks she's a danger to us†¦ â€Å"I don't hear that,† I contradicted her, still only halfway aware of our audience. Jasper was wavering. He would not do something that would hurt Alice. Not right this moment. Will you risk her life, leave her undefended? â€Å"Why are you doing this to me?† I groaned. My head fell into my hands. I was not Bella's protector. I could not be that. Wasn't Alice's divided future enough proof of that? I love her, too. Or I will. It's not the same, but I want her around for that. â€Å"Love her, too?† I whispered, incredulous. She sighed. You are so blind, Edward. Can't you see where you're headed? Can't you see where you already are? It's more inevitable than the sun rising in the east. See what I see†¦ I shook my head, horrified. â€Å"No.† I tried to shut out the visions she revealed to me. â€Å"I don't have to follow that course. I'll leave. I will change the future.† â€Å"You can try,† she said, her voice skeptical. â€Å"Oh, come on!† Emmett bellowed. â€Å"Pay attention,† Rose hissed at him. â€Å"Alice sees him falling for a human! How classically Edward!† She made a gagging sound. I scarcely heard her. â€Å"What?† Emmett said, startled. Then his booming laugh echoed through the room. â€Å"Is that what's been going on?† He laughed again. â€Å"Tough break, Edward.† I felt his hand on my shoulder, and I shook it off absently. I couldn't pay attention to him. â€Å"Fall for a human?† Esme repeated in a stunned voice. â€Å"For the girl he saved today? Fall in love with her?† â€Å"What do you see, Alice? Exactly,† Jasper demanded. She turned toward him; I continued to stare numbly at the side of her face. â€Å"It all depends on whether he is strong enough or not. Either he'll kill her himself† – she turned to meet my gaze again, glaring – â€Å"which would really irritate me, Edward, not to mention what it would do to you – † she faced Jasper again, â€Å"or she'll be one of us someday.† Someone gasped; I didn't look to see who. â€Å"That's not going to happen!† I was shouting again. â€Å"Either one!† Alice didn't seem to hear me. â€Å"It all depends,† she repeated. â€Å"He may be just strong enough not to kill her – but it will be close. It will take an amazing amount of control,† she mused. â€Å"More even than Carlisle has. He may be just strong enough†¦ The only thing he's not strong enough to do is stay away from her. That's a lost cause.† I couldn't find my voice. No one else seemed to be able to either. The room was still. I stared at Alice, and everyone else stared at me. I could see my own horrified expression from five different viewpoints. After a long moment, Carlisle sighed. â€Å"Well, this†¦complicates things.† â€Å"I'll say,† Emmett agreed. His voice was still close to laughter. Trust Emmett to find the joke in the destruction of my life. â€Å"I suppose the plans remain the same, though,† Carlisle said thoughtfully. â€Å"We'll stay, and watch. Obviously, no one will†¦hurt the girl.† I stiffened. â€Å"No,† Jasper said quietly. â€Å"I can agree to that. If Alice sees only two ways – â€Å" â€Å"No!† My voice was not a shout or a growl or a cry of despair, but some combination of the three. â€Å"No!† I had to leave, to be away from the noise of their thoughts – Rosalie's selfrighteous disgust, Emmett's humor, Carlisle's never ending patience†¦ Worse: Alice's confidence. Jasper's confidence in that confidence. Worst of all: Esme's†¦joy. I stalked out of the room. Esme touched my arm as I passed, but I didn't acknowledge the gesture. I was running before I was out of the house. I cleared the river in one bound, and raced into the forest. The rain was back again, falling so heavily that I was drenched in a few moments. I liked the thick sheet of water – it made a wall between me and the rest of the world. It closed me in, let me be alone. I ran due east, over and through the mountains without breaking my straight course, until I could see the lights of Seattle on the other side of the sound. I stopped before I touched the borders of human civilization. Shut in by the rain, all alone, I finally made myself look at what I had done – at the way I had mutilated the future. First, the vision of Alice and the girl with their arms around each other – the trust and friendship was so obvious it shouted from the image. Bella's wide chocolate eyes were not bewildered in this vision, but still full of secrets – in this moment, they seemed to be happy secrets. She did not flinch away from Alice's cold arm. What did it mean? How much did she know? In that still-life moment from the future, what did she think of me? Then the other image, so much the same, yet now colored by horror. Alice and Bella, their arms still wrapped around each other in trusting friendship. But now there was no difference between those arms – both were white, smooth as marble, hard as steel. Bella's wide eyes were no longer chocolate. The irises were a shocking, vivid crimson. The secrets in them were unfathomable – acceptance or desolation? It was impossible to tell. Her face was cold and immortal. I shuddered. I could not suppress the questions, similar, but different: What did it mean – how had this come about? And what did she think of me now? I could answer that last one. If I forced her into this empty half-life through my weakness and selfishness, surely she would hate me. But there was one more horrifying image – worse than any image I'd ever held inside my head. My own eyes, deep crimson with human blood, the eyes of the monster. Bella's broken body in my arms, ashy white, drained, lifeless. It was so concrete, so clear. I couldn't stand to see this. Could not bear it. I tried to banish it from my mind, tried to see something else, anything else. Tried to see again the expression on her living face that had obstructed my view for the last chapter of my existence. All to no avail. Alice's bleak vision filled my head, and I writhed internally with the agony it caused. Meanwhile, the monster in me was overflowing with glee, jubilant at the likelihood of his success. It sickened me. This could not be allowed. There had to be a way to circumvent the future. I would not let Alice's visions direct me. I could choose a different path. There was always a choice. There had to be.